Electrochemically Enhanced Delivery of Pemetrexed from Electroactive Hydrogels

Au-Yong, Sophie and Firlak, Melike and Draper, Emily and Municoy, Sofia and Ashton, Mark and Akien, Geoffrey and Halcovitch, Nathan and Baldock, Sara and Martin-Hirsch, Pierre and Desimone, Martin and Hardy, John (2022) Electrochemically Enhanced Delivery of Pemetrexed from Electroactive Hydrogels. Polymers, 14 (22). ISSN 2073-4360

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Abstract

Electroactive hydrogels based on derivatives of polyethyleneglycol (PEG), chitosan and polypyrrole were prepared via a combination of photopolymerization and oxidative chemical polymerization, and optionally doped with anions (e.g., lignin, drugs, etc.). The products were analyzed with a variety of techniques, including: FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR (solution state), 13C NMR (solid state), XRD, TGA, SEM, swelling ratios and rheology. The conductive gels swell ca. 8 times less than the non-conductive gels due to the presence of the interpenetrating network (IPN) of polypyrrole and lignin. A rheological study showed that the non-conductive gels are soft (G′ 0.35 kPa, G″ 0.02 kPa) with properties analogous to brain tissue, whereas the conductive gels are significantly stronger (G′ 30 kPa, G″ 19 kPa) analogous to breast tissue due to the presence of the IPN of polypyrrole and lignin. The potential of these biomaterials to be used for biomedical applications was validated in vitro by cell culture studies (assessing adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts) and drug delivery studies (electrochemically loading the FDA-approved chemotherapeutic pemetrexed and measuring passive and stimulated release); indeed, the application of electrical stimulus enhanced the release of PEM from gels by ca. 10–15% relative to the passive release control experiment for each application of electrical stimulation over a short period analogous to the duration of stimulation applied for electrochemotherapy. It is foreseeable that such materials could be integrated in electrochemotherapeutic medical devices, e.g., electrode arrays or plates currently used in the clinic.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Polymers
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/sustainabledevelopmentgoals/good_health_and_well_being
Subjects:
ID Code:
179502
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
25 Nov 2022 16:25
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
13 Jan 2023 02:17