Improving the robustness, accuracy, and utility of chemistry-climate model ensembles

Amos, Matt (2022) Improving the robustness, accuracy, and utility of chemistry-climate model ensembles. PhD thesis, UNSPECIFIED.

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Abstract

Ensembles of chemistry-climate models (CCMs) are fundamental for the exploration of the chemistry-climate system. A particular focus of chemistry-climate modelling is stratospheric ozone, whose concentrations have been decreased by anthropogenic releases of ozone depleting substances. In conjunction with observational data, CCM ensembles have been relied upon to simulate historic effects of ozone depletion and to project future ozone recovery. However, many widely used ensemble analysis methods are simplistic and are based upon incorrect assumptions about the design of the ensemble. Multi-model means used to construct future ozone projections do not account for variable model performance or similarity and therefore give biased and inaccurate projections. Similarly, simplistic linear regression methods used to infill historic ozone records underestimate interannual variability and are inaccurate in regions of sparse data coverage. Moreover, given advances in machine learning and data science and their increased use in environmental science, it is timely to apply more advanced tools to CCM ensembles. To address this methodological deficit, this thesis presents a set of novel tools to improve the predictions and projections from CCM ensembles of stratospheric ozone. A process-based weighted mean is developed which accounts for model performance and similarity in CCM ensembles. This improvement over pre-existing methods was used to generate accurate ozone hole recovery projections. This thesis also developed a Bayesian neural network (BNN) which fuses together CCMs with observational data to produce accurate and uncertainty-aware predictions. The BNN framework was used to produce historic continuous datasets of total ozone column and vertically resolved ozone, and represents a significant improvement in methods used to ensemble models. Though designed for CCM ensembles these flexible tools have the potential to be applied to other environmental modelling disciplines to improve the accuracy of projections, better understand uncertainty and to make better use of historic observations.

Item Type:
Thesis (PhD)
Subjects:
ID Code:
165738
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
09 Feb 2022 09:40
Refereed?:
No
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
19 May 2022 23:51