Impoliteness and hate speech : Compare and contrast

Culpeper, J. (2021) Impoliteness and hate speech : Compare and contrast. Journal of Pragmatics. pp. 4-11. ISSN 0378-2166

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Both impoliteness and hate speech deal with offensive behaviour, yet it is also obvious that they are not exactly the same. This paper aims to tease out the similarities and differences. The first part concentrates on theorising by impoliteness and hate speech scholars, and thus takes a second-order perspective. It discusses the notions of face (largely overlooked in studies of hate speech), incitement (largely overlooked in studies of impoliteness) and intentionality (and related concepts) (examined in both studies of impoliteness and hate speech, though often without explicit connections to the other field). The second part of the paper, taking more of a first-order perspective, concentrates on the metapragmatics of the labels impoliteness and hate speech, which are approached through the terms impolite and hateful. Hateful, in comparison with impolite is characterised by more extreme behaviours, the emotion of hurt, and associations of prejudice. This part of the paper also provides a demonstration of what one can do with corpus-methods. Overall, it is hoped that this paper will promote theoretical synergies, and also greater awareness of the labels that are used.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Journal of Pragmatics
Additional Information:
This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Pragmatics. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Pragmatics, 179, 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.pragma.2021.04.019
Uncontrolled Keywords:
?? facehate speechimpolitenessincitementintentionalitymetapragmaticsartificial intelligencelinguistics and languagelanguage and linguistics ??
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Deposited On:
14 Jul 2021 10:15
Last Modified:
07 May 2024 00:22