Sources and transformation pathways for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites in soils from Northwest Fujian, China

Huang, Huanfang and Zhang, Yuan and Chen, Wei and Chen, Wenwen and Yuen, Dave A. and Ding, Yang and Chen, Yingjie and Mao, Yao and Qi, Shihua (2018) Sources and transformation pathways for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites in soils from Northwest Fujian, China. Environmental Pollution, 235. pp. 560-570. ISSN 0269-7491

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Abstract

Dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethanol) found in the environment is not only a miticide originated from commercial use, but also a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which is often overlooked. To verify the sources and transformation pathways of DDT and related metabolites in soils, we measured p,p’-(dicofol + DBP) (sum of p,p’-dicofol and 4,4′-dichlorobenzophenone), DDT and six metabolites in soils from Northwest Fujian, China. The ratios of 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p’-DDT)/1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p’-DDT) and the mass balance demonstrated that p,p’-(dicofol + DBP) predominantly originated from p,p’-DDT transformation rather than from actual dicofol application. p,p’-(dicofol + DBP) accounted for 45.0% as the primary metabolites of DDT in this study, more than 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p’-DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p’-DDD), which might lead to large overestimations of the fresh DDT input by using the traditional ratio of (∑2DDD + ∑2DDE)/∑2DDT (with all o,p’- and p,p’- isomers included). In paddy fields where the conditions alternate between aerobic (dry period) and anaerobic (wet period), both p,p’-DDD and p,p’-DDE were likely to degrade to 1-chloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p’-DDMU), which further transformed to 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p’-DDNU). Degradation of p,p’-DDMU to p,p’-DDNU mainly occurred in waterlogged paddy soils. However, p,p’-DDNU might not transform to other higher-order metabolites in aerobic surface soils. Overall, our study confirmed p,p’-(dicofol + DBP) as metabolites of p,p’-DDT, suggested DDE and DDD were parallel precursors of DDMU, and further verified the transformation pathways of DDT in surface soils.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Environmental Pollution
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/3000/3005
Subjects:
ID Code:
89647
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
11 Jan 2018 09:46
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
20 Sep 2020 04:34