Sea salt emission, transport and influence on size-segregated nitrate simulation:a case study in northwestern Europe by WRF-Chem

Chen, Ying and Cheng, Y. and Ma, N. and Wolke, R. and Nordmann, S. and Schüttauf, S. and Ran, L. and Wehner, B. and Birmili, W. and van der Gon, H. A. C. D. and Mu, Q. and Barthel, S. and Spindler, G. and Stieger, B. and Müller, K. and Zheng, G.-J. and Pöschl, U. and Su, H. and Wiedensohler, A. (2016) Sea salt emission, transport and influence on size-segregated nitrate simulation:a case study in northwestern Europe by WRF-Chem. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16 (18). pp. 12081-12097. ISSN 1680-7316

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Sea salt aerosol (SSA) is one of the major components of primary aerosols and has significant impact on the formation of secondary inorganic particles mass on a global scale. In this study, the fully online coupled WRF-Chem model was utilized to evaluate the SSA emission scheme and its influence on the nitrate simulation in a case study in Europe during 10–20 September 2013. Meteorological conditions near the surface, wind pattern and thermal stratification structure were well reproduced by the model. Nonetheless, the coarse-mode (PM1 − 10) particle mass concentration was substantially overestimated due to the overestimation of SSA and nitrate. Compared to filter measurements at four EMEP stations (coastal stations: Bilthoven, Kollumerwaard and Vredepeel; inland station: Melpitz), the model overestimated SSA concentrations by a factor of 8–20. We found that this overestimation was mainly caused by overestimated SSA emissions over the North Sea during 16–20 September. Over the coastal regions, SSA was injected into the continental free troposphere through an “aloft bridge” (about 500 to 1000 m above the ground), a result of the different thermodynamic properties and planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure between continental and marine regions. The injected SSA was further transported inland and mixed downward to the surface through downdraft and PBL turbulence. This process extended the influence of SSA to a larger downwind region, leading, for example, to an overestimation of SSA at Melpitz, Germany, by a factor of  ∼  20. As a result, the nitrate partitioning fraction (ratio between particulate nitrate and the summation of particulate nitrate and gas-phase nitric acid) increased by about 20 % for the coarse-mode nitrate due to the overestimation of SSA at Melpitz. However, no significant difference in the partitioning fraction for the fine-mode nitrate was found. About 140 % overestimation of the coarse-mode nitrate resulted from the influence of SSA at Melpitz. In contrast, the overestimation of SSA inhibited the nitrate particle formation in the fine mode by about 20 % because of the increased consumption of precursor by coarse-mode nitrate formation.

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Journal Article
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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
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19 Jul 2017 13:02
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17 Sep 2023 02:06