Identification of a functionally significant tri-allelic genotype in the Tyrosinase gene (TYR) causing hypomorphic oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1B)

Norman, Chelsea and O'Gorman, Luke and Gibson, Jane and Pengelly, Reuben and Baralle, Diana and Ratnayaka, Arjuna and Griffiths, Helen and Rose-Zerilli, Matthew and Ranger, Megan and Bunyan, David and Lee, Helena and Page, Rhiannon and Newall, Tutte and Shawkat, Fatima and Mattocks, Christopher and Ward, Daniel and Ennis, Sarah and Self, Jay (2017) Identification of a functionally significant tri-allelic genotype in the Tyrosinase gene (TYR) causing hypomorphic oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1B). Scientific Reports, 7. ISSN 2045-2322

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Abstract

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and ocular albinism (OA) are inherited disorders of melanin biosynthesis, resulting in loss of pigment and severe visual deficits. OCA encompasses a range of subtypes with overlapping, often hypomorphic phenotypes. OCA1 is the most common cause of albinism in European populations and is inherited through autosomal recessive mutations in the Tyrosinase (TYR) gene. However, there is a high level of reported missing heritability, where only a single heterozygous mutation is found in TYR. This is also the case for other OCA subtypes including OCA2 caused by mutations in the OCA2 gene. Here we have interrogated the genetic cause of albinism in a well phenotyped, hypomorphic albinism population by sequencing a broad gene panel and performing segregation studies on phenotyped family members. Of eighteen probands we can confidently diagnose three with OA and OCA2, and one with a PAX6 mutation. Of six probands with only a single heterozygous mutation in TYR, all were found to have the two common variants S192Y and R402Q. Our results suggest that a combination of R402Q and S192Y with a deleterious mutation in a ‘tri-allelic genotype’ can account for missing heritability in some hypomorphic OCA1 albinism phenotypes.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Scientific Reports
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1000
Subjects:
ID Code:
87098
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
19 Jul 2017 07:58
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
09 Sep 2020 04:14