Annual variations in the Martian bow shock location as observed by the Mars Express mission

Hall, Benjamin Edward Stanley and Lester, Mark and Sánchez-Cano, Beatriz and Nichols, Jonathan and Andrews, David and Edberg, Niklas and Opgenoorth, Hermann and Fraenz, Markus and Holmstrom, Mats and Ramstad, Robin and Witasse, Olivier and Cartacci, Marco and Cicchetti, A and Noschese, R and Orosei, R (2016) Annual variations in the Martian bow shock location as observed by the Mars Express mission. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 121 (11). 11,474–11,494. ISSN 2169-9380

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The Martian bow shock distance has previously been shown to be anticorrelated with solar wind dynamic pressure but correlated with solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. Since both of these solar parameters reduce with the square of the distance from the Sun, and Mars' orbit about the Sun increases by ∼0.3 AU from perihelion to aphelion, it is not clear how the bow shock location will respond to variations in these solar parameters, if at all, throughout its orbit. In order to characterize such a response, we use more than 5 Martian years of Mars Express Analyser of Space Plasma and EneRgetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) Electron Spectrometer measurements to automatically identify 11,861 bow shock crossings. We have discovered that the bow shock distance as a function of solar longitude has a minimum of 2.39RM around aphelion and proceeds to a maximum of 2.65RM around perihelion, presenting an overall variation of ∼11% throughout the Martian orbit. We have verified previous findings that the bow shock in southern hemisphere is on average located farther away from Mars than in the northern hemisphere. However, this hemispherical asymmetry is small (total distance variation of ∼2.4%), and the same annual variations occur irrespective of the hemisphere. We have identified that the bow shock location is more sensitive to variations in the solar EUV irradiance than to solar wind dynamic pressure variations. We have proposed possible interaction mechanisms between the solar EUV flux and Martian plasma environment that could explain this annual variation in bow shock location.

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Journal Article
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Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
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06 Jul 2017 15:24
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19 Sep 2023 01:45