Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in children : epidemiology, diagnosis and management at a tertiary center

Tebruegge, Marc and Pantazidoe, Anastasia and MacGregor, Duncan and Gonis, Gena and Leslie, David and Sedda, Luigi and Ritz, Nicole and Connell, Tom and Curtis, Nigel (2016) Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in children  : epidemiology, diagnosis and management at a tertiary center. PLoS ONE, 11 (1): e0147513. pp. 1-14. ISSN 1932-6203

[thumbnail of 2016_Tubruegge&_Plos1]
PDF (2016_Tubruegge&_Plos1)
2016_Tubruegge_Plos1.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (749kB)


Background There are limited data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and optimal management of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease in children. Methods Retrospective cohort study of NTM cases over a 10-year-period at a tertiary referral hospital in Australia. Results A total of 140 children with NTM disease, including 107 with lymphadenitis and 25 with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), were identified. The estimated incidence of NTM disease was 0.6–1.6 cases / 100,000 children / year; no increasing trend was observed over the study period. Temporal analyses revealed a seasonal incidence cycle around 12 months, with peaks in late winter/spring and troughs in autumn. Mycobacterium-avium-complex accounted for most cases (77.8%), followed by Mycobacterium ulcerans (14.4%) and Mycobacterium marinum (3.3%). Polymerase chain reaction testing had higher sensitivity than culture and microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (92.0%, 67.2% and 35.7%, respectively). The majority of lymphadenitis cases underwent surgical excision (97.2%); multiple recurrences in this group were less common in cases treated with clarithromycin and rifampicin compared with clarithromycin alone or no anti-mycobacterial drugs (0% versus 7.1%; OR:0.73). SSTI recurrences were also less common in cases treated with two anti-mycobacterial drugs compared with one or none (10.5% versus 33.3%; OR:0.23). Conclusions There was seasonal variation in the incidence of NTM disease, analogous to recently published observations in tuberculosis, which have been linked to seasonal variation in vitamin D. Our finding that anti-mycobacterial combination therapy was associated with a reduced risk of recurrences in patients with NTM lymphadenitis or SSTI requires further confirmation in prospective trials.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Additional Information:
© 2016 Tebruegge et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Uncontrolled Keywords:
?? agricultural and biological sciences(all)biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology(all)medicine(all) ??
ID Code:
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
28 Jan 2016 10:36
Last Modified:
14 Apr 2024 23:59