Recent advances in phlebotomine sand fly research related to leishmaniasis control

Bates, Paul A. and Depaquit, Jerôme and Galati, Eunice Ab and Kamhawi, Shaden and Maroli, Michele and McDowell, Mary Ann and Picado, Albert and Ready, Paul D. and Salomón, O Daniel and Shaw, Jeffrey J. and Traub-Csekö, Yara M. and Warburg, Alon (2015) Recent advances in phlebotomine sand fly research related to leishmaniasis control. Parasites and Vectors, 8 (1). ISSN 1756-3305

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Phlebotomine sand flies are the subject of much research because of the role of their females as the only proven natural vectors of Leishmania species, the parasitic protozoans that are the causative agents of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Activity in this field was highlighted by the eighth International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sand flies (ISOPS) held in September 2014, which prompted this review focusing on vector control. Topics reviewed include: Taxonomy and phylogenetics, Vector competence, Genetics, genomics and transcriptomics, Eco-epidemiology, and Vector control. Research on sand flies as leishmaniasis vectors has revealed a diverse array of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission cycles, mostly in subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America, but also in Mediterranean Europe. The challenge is to progress beyond descriptive eco-epidemiology, in order to separate vectors of biomedical importance from the sand fly species that are competent vectors but lack the vectorial capacity to cause much human disease. Transmission modelling is required to identify the vectors that are a public health priority, the ones that must be controlled as part of the integrated control of leishmaniasis. Effective modelling of transmission will require the use of entomological indices more precise than those usually reported in the leishmaniasis literature.

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Journal Article
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Parasites and Vectors
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© 2015 Bates et al. licensee BioMed Central. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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Deposited On:
09 Apr 2015 08:45
Last Modified:
20 May 2024 00:02