Entablature:fracture types and mechanisms

Forbes, Anne E.S. and Blake, Steven and Tuffen, Hugh (2014) Entablature:fracture types and mechanisms. Bulletin of Volcanology, 76. ISSN 0258-8900

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Abstract

Entablature is the term used to describe zones or tiers of irregular jointing in basaltic lava flows. It is thought to form when water from rivers dammed by the lava inundates the lava flow surface, and during lava-meltwater interaction in subglacial settings. A number of different fracture types are described in entablature outcrops from the Búrfell lava and older lava flows in Þjórsárdalur, southwest Iceland. These are: striae-bearing, column-bounding fractures and pseudopillow fracture systems that themselves consist of two different fracture types—master fractures with dimpled surface textures and subsidiary fractures with curved striae. The interaction of pseudopillow fracture systems and columnar jointing in the entablature produces the chevron fracture patterns that are commonly observed in entablature. Cube-jointing is a more densely fractured version of entablature, which likely forms when more coolant enters the hot lava. The entablature tiers display closely spaced striae and dendritic crystal shapes which indicate rapid cooling. Master fracture surfaces show a thin band with an evolved composition at the fracture surface; mineral textures in this band also show evidence of quenching of this material. This is interpreted as gas-driven filter pressing of late-stage residual melt that is drawn into an area of low pressure immediately preceding or during master fracture formation by ductile extensional fracture of hot, partially crystallised lava. This melt is then quenched by an influx of water and/or steam when the master fracture fully opens. Our findings suggest that master fractures are the main conduit for coolant entering the lava flow during entablature formation.

Item Type: Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title: Bulletin of Volcanology
Uncontrolled Keywords: /dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1900/1906
Subjects:
Departments: Faculty of Science and Technology > Lancaster Environment Centre
ID Code: 71374
Deposited By: ep_importer_pure
Deposited On: 22 Oct 2014 14:29
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 29 Jan 2020 02:28
URI: https://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/71374

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