The cancer-free phenotype in trichothiodystrophy is unrelated to its repair defect

Berneburg, M. and Clingen, P.H. and Harcourt, S.A. and Lowe, J.E. and Taylor, Elaine M. and Green, M.H. and Krutmann, J. and Arlett, C.F. and Lehmann, A.R. (2000) The cancer-free phenotype in trichothiodystrophy is unrelated to its repair defect. Cancer Research, 60 (2). pp. 431-438. ISSN 0008-5472

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The DNA repair-deficient genetic disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD) can both result from mutations in the XPD gene, the sites of the mutations differing between the two disorders. The hallmarks of XP are multiple pigmentation changes in the skin and a greatly elevated frequency of skin cancers, characteristics that are not seen in TTD. XP-D and most TTD patients have reduced levels of DNA repair, but some recent reports have suggested that the repair deficiencies in TTD cells are milder than in XP-D cells. We reported recently that inhibition of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression by UVB irradiation was similar in normal and TTD cells but increased in XP-D cells, suggesting a correlation between ICAM-1 inhibition and cancer proneness. In the first part of the current work, we have extended these studies and found several other examples, including XP-G and Cockayne syndrome cells, in which increased ICAM-1 inhibition correlated with cancer proneness. However, we also discovered that a subset of TTD cells, in which arg112 in the NH2-terminal region of the XPD protein is mutated to histidine, had an ICAM-1 response similar to that of XP-D cells. In the second part of the work, we have shown that TTD cells with this specific NH2-terminal mutation are more sensitive to UV irradiation than other TTDs, most of which are mutated in the COOH-terminal region, and are indistinguishable from XP-D cells in cell killing, incision breaks, and repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Because the clinical phenotypes of these patients do not obviously differ from those of TTDs with mutations at other sites, we conclude that the lack of skin abnormalities in TTD is independent of the defective cellular responses to UV. It is likely to result from a transcriptional defect, which prevents the skin abnormalities from being expressed.

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Journal Article
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Cancer Research
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21 Nov 2012 11:18
Last Modified:
15 Sep 2023 00:05