Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk:a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

Cardwell, Chris R. and Stene, Lars C. and Joner, Geir and Bulsara, Max K. and Cinek, Ondrej and Rosenbauer, Joachim and Ludvigsson, Johnny and Svensson, Jannet and Goldacre, Michael J. and Waldhoer, Thomas and Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa and Gimeno, Suely G. A. and Chuang, Lee-Ming and Roberts, Christine L. and Parslow, Roger C. and Wadsworth, Emma J. K. and Chetwynd, Amanda and Brigis, Girts and Urbonaite, Brone and Sipetic, Sandra and Schober, Edith and Devoti, Gabriele and Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin and de Beaufort, Carine E. and Stoyanov, Denka and Buschard, Karsten and Radon, Katja and Glatthaar, Christopher and Patterson, Chris C. (2011) Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk:a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40 (2). pp. 363-374.

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Abstract

Background The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies. Methods Relevant studies published before January 2010 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of studies provided individual patient data or conducted pre-specified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios (ORs), before and after adjustment for confounders, and investigate heterogeneity. Results Data were available for 6 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 11 955 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was no evidence of an association prior to adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for maternal age at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR = 0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P = 0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I-2 = 67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed that the association was stronger and more consistent in children < 5 years of age (n = 25 studies, maternal age adjusted OR = 0.84 95% CI 0.75, 0.93; I-2 = 23%). Conclusion Although the association varied between studies, there was some evidence of a lower risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes with increasing birth order, particularly in children aged < 5 years. This finding could reflect increased exposure to infections in early life in later born children.

Item Type: Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title: International Journal of Epidemiology
Uncontrolled Keywords: /dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700/2713
Subjects:
Departments: VC's Office
Faculty of Science and Technology > Mathematics and Statistics
ID Code: 51675
Deposited By: ep_importer_pure
Deposited On: 30 Nov 2011 10:02
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 05 Nov 2019 02:58
URI: https://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/51675

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