Phosphorus management at the watershed scale:a modification of the phosphorus index

Gburek, W. J. and Sharpley, A. N. and Heathwaite, L. and Folmar, G. J. (2000) Phosphorus management at the watershed scale:a modification of the phosphorus index. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29 (1). pp. 130-144. ISSN 1537-2537

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Abstract

We considered hydrologic and chemical factors controlling P export from a 39.5-ha mixed land use watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, focusing our evaluation on watershed vulnerability to P loss. The spatial variations of P source factors, soil P, and P inputs from fertilizer and manure were evaluated. Distribution of Mehlich-3 soil P on a 30-m grid over the watershed showed that soil P varied with land use. Soils in wooded areas had low Mehlich-3 P (<30 mg kg−1); grazed pasture had Mehlich-3 P values between 100 and 200 mg kg−1; and cropped fields receiving manure and fertilizer applications were mostly >200 mg kg−1. Phosphorus sources and transport controls on P loss were evaluated by examining in-stream P concentrations during storm hydrographs. Phosphorus concentrations decreased 50% downstream from headwaters to watershed outlet, and were more closely related to near-stream (within 60 m) distribution of high-P soils than to that of the whole watershed. This suggests that near-stream surface runoff and soil P are controlling P export from the watershed. Based on these findings, we modified the Phosphorus Index (PI), a user-oriented tool developed by the NRCS-USDA to identify critical source areas controlling P export from agricultural watersheds. The modification separately evaluates P source and transport factors, and incorporates the hydrologic return period to describe contributing areas. The modified PI was applied to the watershed to illustrate interactions between P source and transport processes controlling P export, and approaches for managing P loss.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Journal of Environmental Quality
Additional Information:
Phosphorus management at the watershed scale: A modification of the phosphorus index 186 cites: http://scholar.google.com/scholar?num=100&hl=en&lr=&cites=14991131224690039215
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2300/2311
Subjects:
ID Code:
49707
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
13 Sep 2011 13:16
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
16 Sep 2020 01:04