Zoonotic and Zooanthroponotic Potential of Monkeypox

Atasoy, Mustafa O and Naggar, Rania F El and Rohaim, Mohammed A and Munir, Muhammad (2024) Zoonotic and Zooanthroponotic Potential of Monkeypox. In: Poxviruses :. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology . Springer, Cham, pp. 75-90. ISBN 9783031571640

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The current multicounty outbreak of monkeypox virus (MPXV) posed an emerging and continued challenge to already strained public healthcare sector, around the globe. Since its first identification, monkeypox disease (mpox) remained enzootic in Central and West African countries where reports of human cases are sporadically described. Recent trends in mpox spread outside the Africa have highlighted increased incidence of spillover of the MPXV from animal to humans. While nature of established animal reservoirs remained undefined, several small mammals including rodents, carnivores, lagomorphs, insectivores, non-human primates, domestic/farm animals, and several species of wildlife are proposed to be carrier of the MPXV infection. There are established records of animal-to-human (zoonotic) spread of MPXV through close interaction of humans with animals by eating bushmeat, contracting bodily fluids or trading possibly infected animals. In contrast, there are reports and increasing possibilities of human-to-animal (zooanthroponotic) spread of the MPXV through petting and close interaction with pet owners and animal care workers. We describe here the rationales and molecular factors which predispose the spread of MPXV not only amongst humans but also from animals to humans. A range of continuing opportunities for the spread and evolution of MPXV are discussed to consider risks beyond the currently identified groups. With the possibility of MPXV establishing itself in animal reservoirs, continued and broad surveillance, investigation into unconventional transmissions, and exploration of spillover events are warranted.

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04 Jun 2024 09:55
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04 Jun 2024 23:55