Factors associated with differential seropositivity to Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri in a high transmission urban setting for leptospirosis in Brazil

de Oliveira, Daiana and Khalil, Hussein and Almerinda G Palma, Fabiana and Santana, Roberta and Nery, Nivison and C Quintero-Vélez, Juan and Zeppelini, Caio Graco and Almeida do Sacramento, Gielson and Cruz, Jaqueline S and Lustosa, Ricardo and Santana Ferreira, Igor and Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana and Diggle, Peter J and Wunder, Elsio A and I Ko, Albert and Alzate Lopez, Yeimi and Begon, Mike and G Reis, Mitermayer and Costa, Federico (2024) Factors associated with differential seropositivity to Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri in a high transmission urban setting for leptospirosis in Brazil. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 18 (5): e0011292. ISSN 1935-2727

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Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by pathogenic species of bacteria belonging to the genus Leptospira. Most studies infer the epidemiological patterns of a single serogroup or aggregate all serogroups to estimate overall seropositivity, thus not exploring the risks of exposure to distinct serogroups. The present study aims to delineate the demographic, socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with seropositivity of Leptospira serogroup Icterohaemorraghiae and serogroup Cynopteri in an urban high transmission setting for leptospirosis in Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional serological study in five informal urban communities in the city of Salvador, Brazil. During the years 2018, 2020 2021, we recruited 2.808 residents and collected blood samples for serological analysis using microagglutination assays. We used a fixed-effect multinomial logistic regression model to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity for each serogroup. Seropositivity to Cynopteri increased with each year of age (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.06) and was higher in those living in houses with unplastered walls (exposed brick) (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.09-2.59) and where cats were present near the household (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.03-3.88). Seropositivity to Icterohaemorrhagiae also increased with each year of age (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.03) and was higher in males (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.09-2.10), in those with work-related exposures (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.10-2.66) or who had contact with sewage (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.00-2.03). Spatial analysis showed differences in distribution of seropositivity to serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Cynopteri within the five districts where study communities were situated. Our data suggest distinct epidemiological patterns associated with the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Cynopteri serogroups in the urban environment at high risk for leptospirosis and with differences in spatial niches. We emphasize the need for studies that accurately identify the different pathogenic serogroups that circulate and infect residents of low-income areas. [Abstract copyright: Copyright: © 2024 de Oliveira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.]

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Uncontrolled Keywords:
?? infectious diseasespublic health, environmental and occupational healthpharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics(all) ??
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30 May 2024 13:45
Last Modified:
31 May 2024 02:35