Collaborative care approaches for people with severe mental illness

Reilly, S. and Hobson-Merrett, C. and Gibbons, B. and Jones, B. and Richards, D. and Plappert, H. and Gibson, J. and Green, M. and Gask, L. and Huxley, P.J. and Druss, B.G. and Planner, C.L. (2024) Collaborative care approaches for people with severe mental illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2024 (5). ISSN 1469-493X

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Abstract

Background Collaborative care for severe mental illness (SMI) is a community‐based intervention that promotes interdisciplinary working across primary and secondary care. Collaborative care interventions aim to improve the physical and/or mental health care of individuals with SMI. This is an update of a 2013 Cochrane review, based on new searches of the literature, which includes an additional seven studies. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of collaborative care approaches in comparison with standard care (or other non‐collaborative care interventions) for people with diagnoses of SMI who are living in the community. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Study‐Based Register of Trials (10 February 2021). We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders (CCMD) controlled trials register (all available years to 6 June 2016). Subsequent searches on Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO together with the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (with an overlap) were run on 17 December 2021. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where interventions described as 'collaborative care' were compared with 'standard care' for adults (18+ years) living in the community with a diagnosis of SMI. SMI was defined as schizophrenia, other types of schizophrenia‐like psychosis or bipolar affective disorder. The primary outcomes of interest were: quality of life, mental state and psychiatric admissions at 12 months follow‐up. Data collection and analysis Pairs of authors independently extracted data. We assessed the quality and certainty of the evidence using RoB 2 (for the primary outcomes) and GRADE. We compared treatment effects between collaborative care and standard care. We divided outcomes into short‐term (up to six months), medium‐term (seven to 12 months) and long‐term (over 12 months). For dichotomous data we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and for continuous data we calculated the standardised mean difference (SMD), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used random‐effects meta‐analyses due to substantial levels of heterogeneity across trials. We created a summary of findings table using GRADEpro. Main results Eight RCTs (1165 participants) are included in this review. Two met the criteria for type A collaborative care (intervention comprised of the four core components). The remaining six met the criteria for type B (described as collaborative care by the trialists, but not comprised of the four core components). The composition and purpose of the interventions varied across studies. For most outcomes there was low‐ or very low‐certainty evidence. We found three studies that assessed the quality of life of participants at 12 months. Quality of life was measured using the SF‐12 and the WHOQOL‐BREF and the mean endpoint mental health component scores were reported at 12 months. Very low‐certainty evidence did not show a difference in quality of life (mental health domain) between collaborative care and standard care in the medium term (at 12 months) (SMD 0.03, 95% CI ‐0.26 to 0.32; 3 RCTs, 227 participants). Very low‐certainty evidence did not show a difference in quality of life (physical health domain) between collaborative care and standard care in the medium term (at 12 months) (SMD 0.08, 95% CI ‐0.18 to 0.33; 3 RCTs, 237 participants). Furthermore, in the medium term (at 12 months) low‐certainty evidence did not show a difference between collaborative care and standard care in mental state (binary) (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.28; 1 RCT, 253 participants) or in the risk of being admitted to a psychiatric hospital at 12 months (RR 5.15, 95% CI 0.67 to 39.57; 1 RCT, 253 participants). One study indicated an improvement in disability (proxy for social functioning) at 12 months in the collaborative care arm compared to usual care (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.95; 1 RCT, 253 participants); we deemed this low‐certainty evidence. Personal recovery and satisfaction/experience of care outcomes were not reported in any of the included studies. The data from one study indicated that the collaborative care treatment was more expensive than standard care (mean difference (MD) international dollars (Int$) 493.00, 95% CI 345.41 to 640.59) in the short term. Another study found the collaborative care intervention to be slightly less expensive at three years. Authors' conclusions This review does not provide evidence to indicate that collaborative care is more effective than standard care in the medium term (at 12 months) in relation to our primary outcomes (quality of life, mental state and psychiatric admissions). The evidence would be improved by better reporting, higher‐quality RCTs and the assessment of underlying mechanisms of collaborative care. We advise caution in utilising the information in this review to assess the effectiveness of collaborative care.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700
Subjects:
?? medicine(all) ??
ID Code:
220425
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
24 May 2024 10:00
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
26 May 2024 01:32