Tissue-specific distribution and bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids, isomers, alternatives, and precursors in citrus trees of contaminated fields : Implication for risk assessment

Liu, Z. and Liu, S. and Xiao, F. and Sweetman, A.J. and Cui, Q. and Guo, H. and Xu, J. and Luo, Z. and Wang, M. and Zhong, L. and Gan, J. and Tan, W. (2024) Tissue-specific distribution and bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids, isomers, alternatives, and precursors in citrus trees of contaminated fields : Implication for risk assessment. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 465: 133184. ISSN 0304-3894

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Abstract

The ingestion of fruits containing perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) presents potential hazards to human health. This study aimed to fill knowledge gaps concerning the tissue-specific distribution patterns and bioaccumulation behavior of PFAAs and their isomers, alternatives, and precursors (collectively as per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances, PFASs) within citrus trees growing in contaminated fields. It also assessed the potential contribution of precursor degradation to human exposure risk of PFASs. High concentrations of total target PFASs (∑PFASstarget, 92.45–7496.16 ng/g dw) and precursors measured through the total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay (130.80–13979.21 ng/g dw) were found in citrus tree tissues, and short-chain PFASs constituted the primary components. The total PFASs concentrations followed the order of leaves > fruits > branches, bark > wood, and peel > pulp > seeds. The average contamination burden of peel (∑PFASstarget: 57.75%; precursors: 71.15%) was highest among fruit tissues. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and translocation potentials of short-chain, branched, or carboxylate-based PFASs exceeded those of their relatively hydrophobic counterparts, while ether-based PFASs showed lower BAFs than similar PFAAs in above-ground tissues of citrus trees. In the risk assessment of residents consuming contaminated citruses, precursor degradation contributed approximately 36.07% to total PFASs exposure, and therefore should not be ignored.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Journal of Hazardous Materials
Uncontrolled Keywords:
Research Output Funding/yes_externally_funded
Subjects:
?? polyfluoroalkyl substancestotal oxidizable precursor assaycitrus treebioaccumulation behaviorhuman health riskyes - externally fundedenvironmental chemistrypollutionenvironmental engineeringhealth, toxicology and mutagenesiswaste management and disposal ??
ID Code:
212361
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
08 Jan 2024 14:55
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
16 Jul 2024 00:40