Conflict and Social Control among Cannabis Growers

Sevigny, Eric and Potter, Gary and Wilkins, Chris and Barratt, Monica and Sogaard, Thomas Friis and Hakkarainen, Pekka and Grigg, Jodie and Jauffret-Roustide, Marie (2023) Conflict and Social Control among Cannabis Growers. International Journal of Drug Policy: 104292. ISSN 0955-3959

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Abstract

Illegal drug markets are often assumed to be violent and predatory due to the absence of third-party enforcement. While cannabis markets are generally considered to be relatively more peaceful, there has been little investigation of the levels of conflict and victimization among small-scale cannabis growers, particularly under different cannabis policy and enforcement settings. This paper explores prevalence and predictors of conflict and social control among small-scale cannabis growers. The data were obtained from an online convenience survey of small-scale cannabis growers from 13 countries (Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, Portugal, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay) from August 2020 to September 2021 (N = 5667). Key measures collected included the types of victimization due to cannabis growing, the perpetrators of these predatory actions, reasons for the conflict, and the grower's response to being victimized. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of different types of victimization and social control responses among cannabis cultivators. Most growers (76 %) never directly experienced violence or other victimization related to their cannabis cultivation. However, about one-quarter of growers had been victimized at some point, mostly involving theft, with physical violence rare. Growing outdoors, growing with others, growing more plants, and being a more seasoned grower increased the risk of victimization. Growers who were motivated by profit were more susceptible to theft. Surprisingly, growers in legal recreational jurisdictions experienced greater levels of theft and violent victimization than growers in illegal jurisdictions. Nonviolent social control responses predominated among the growers, mostly characterized by toleration but also avoidance and negotiation. While most growers reported no victimization, a substantial minority did so, largely theft rather than violence, and typically did not report employing retaliatory violence. Social control responses were mostly nonviolent. These findings varied under different cannabis policy and enforcement environments. Cannabis legalization does not eliminate opportunities for theft and violence related to cannabis cultivation. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.]

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
International Journal of Drug Policy
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700/2719
Subjects:
?? cannabis cultivationdrug marketssocial controlvictimizationviolencehealth policymedicine (miscellaneous) ??
ID Code:
211189
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
08 Dec 2023 14:55
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
16 Jul 2024 00:38