The Prevalence and Influence of Circumstellar Material around Hydrogen-rich Supernova Progenitors

Bruch, Rachel J. and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Yaron, Ofer and Chen, Ping and Strotjohann, Nora L. and Irani, Ido and Zimmerman, Erez and Schulze, Steve and Yang, Yi and Kim, Young-Lo and Bulla, Mattia and Sollerman, Jesper and Rigault, Mickael and Ofek, Eran and Soumagnac, Maayane and Masci, Frank J. and Fremling, Christoffer and Perley, Daniel and Nordin, Jakob and Cenko, S. Bradley and Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Adams, S. and Adreoni, Igor and Bellm, Eric C. and Blagorodnova, Nadia and Burdge, Kevin and De, Kishalay and Dekany, Richard G. and Dhawan, Suhail and Drake, Andrew J. and Duev, Dmitry A. and Graham, Matthew and Graham, Melissa L. and Jencson, Jacob and Karamehmetoglu, Emir and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kulkarni, Shrinivas and Miller, A. A. and Neill, James D. and Prince, Thomas A. and Riddle, Reed and Rusholme, Benjamin and Sharma, Y. and Smith, Roger and Sravan, Niharika and Taggart, Kirsty and Walters, Richard and Yan, Lin (2023) The Prevalence and Influence of Circumstellar Material around Hydrogen-rich Supernova Progenitors. The Astrophysical Journal, 952 (2): 119. ISSN 0004-637X

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Narrow transient emission lines (flash-ionization features) in early supernova (SN) spectra trace the presence of circumstellar material (CSM) around the massive progenitor stars of core-collapse SNe. The lines disappear within days after the SN explosion, suggesting that this material is spatially confined, and originates from enhanced mass loss shortly (months to a few years) prior to the explosion. We performed a systematic survey of H-rich (Type II) SNe discovered within less than 2 days from the explosion during the first phase of the Zwicky Transient Facility survey (2018–2020), finding 30 events for which a first spectrum was obtained within 36% at the 95% confidence level) confirms that elevated mass loss in massive stars prior to SN explosion is common. We find that SNe II showing flash-ionization features are not significantly brighter, nor bluer, nor more slowly rising than those without. This implies that CSM interaction does not contribute significantly to their early continuum emission, and that the CSM is likely optically thin. We measured the persistence duration of flash-ionization emission and find that most SNe show flash features for ≈5 days. Rarer events, with persistence timescales >10 days, are brighter and rise longer, suggesting these may be intermediate between regular SNe II and strongly interacting SNe IIn.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
The Astrophysical Journal
Uncontrolled Keywords:
?? massive starssupernovaetype ii supernovaecore-collapse supernovaecircumstellar matterastronomy and astrophysicsspace and planetary science ??
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Deposited On:
27 Jul 2023 10:40
Last Modified:
17 Jul 2024 00:17