Measurement of road traffic brake and tyre dust emissions using both particle composition and size distribution data

Beddows, David C.S. and Harrison, Roy M. and Gonet, Tomasz and Maher, Barbara A. and Odling, Nicholas (2023) Measurement of road traffic brake and tyre dust emissions using both particle composition and size distribution data. Environmental Pollution. ISSN 0269-7491 (In Press)

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Estimates of tyre and brake wear emission factors are presented, derived from data collected from roadside and urban background sites on the premises of the University of Birmingham, located in the UK's second largest city. Size-fractionated particulate matter samples were collected at both sites concurrently in the spring/summer of 2019 and analysed for elemental concentrations and magnetic properties. Using Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF), three sources were identified in the roadside mass increment of the 1.0–9.9 μm stages of MOUDI impactors located at both sites, namely: brake dust (7.1%); tyre dust (9.6%); and crustal (83%). The large fraction of the mass apportioned to crustal material was suspected to be mainly from a nearby construction site rather than resuspension of road dust. By using Ba and Zn as elemental tracers, brake and tyre wear emission factors were estimated as 7.4 mg/ and 9.9 mg/, respectively, compared with the PMF-derived equivalent values of 4.4 mg/ and 11 mg/ Based on the magnetic measurements, an emission factor can be estimated independently for brake dust of 4.7 mg/ A further analysis was carried out on the concurrently measured roadside increment in the particle number size distribution (10 nm-10 μm). Four factors were identified in the hourly measurements: traffic exhaust nucleation; traffic exhaust solid particles; windblown dust; and an unknown source. The high increment of the windblown dust factor, 3.2 μg/m3, was comparable in magnitude to the crustal factor measured using the MOUDI samples (3.5 μg/m3). The latter's polar plot indicated that this factor was dominated by a large neighbouring construction site. The number emission factors of the exhaust solid particle and exhaust nucleation factors were estimated as 2.8 and 1.9 x 1012/, respectively.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Environmental Pollution
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30 May 2023 16:10
In Press
Last Modified:
15 Sep 2023 01:35