Explosive volcanic eruptions ‐ VI. Ejecta dispersal in plinian eruptions:the control of eruption conditions and atmospheric properties

Wilson, L. (1987) Explosive volcanic eruptions ‐ VI. Ejecta dispersal in plinian eruptions:the control of eruption conditions and atmospheric properties. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 89 (2). pp. 657-679. ISSN 0016-8009

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Abstract

Summary. A simple model is developed to relate the maximum down‐wind and cross‐wind ranges of pyroclasts forming a plinian airfall deposit to the dynamic processes in the eruption cloud from which they fall and the atmospheric wind conditions in the area. The eruption cloud dynamics are in turn related to the eruptive conditions in the vent (vent radius, exsolved magmatic volatile weight fraction, velocity with which material passes through the vent, and mass eruption rate), some or all of which can be deduced if the appropriate field measurements can be made. Some aspects of the stability of convecting volcanic eruption clouds are investigated, and the effects on eruption cloud height of the local atmospheric temperature profile and the value adopted for the entrainment constant (which relates the horizontal flow speed of atmospheric air entering the column to the vertical rise speed of the column material) are explored. It is confirmed that eruption‐cloud rise height and pyroclast dispersal are mainly controlled by the mass eruption rate (per unit length of active fissure in the case of linear vents) and, hence, the heat input rate to the cloud; but a significant subsidiary dependence on the amount of exsolved magma volatiles is also found. The eruption cloud model is validated by application to observed historic eruptions, and its use in the analysis of palaeo‐eruptions is discussed.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2300
Subjects:
ID Code:
183748
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
11 Jan 2023 09:40
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
11 Jan 2023 09:40