Lightning parameters of sprites and diameter of halos over South Africa

Mashao, D.C. and Kosch, M.J. and Füllekrug, M. and Mlynarczyk, J. (2022) Lightning parameters of sprites and diameter of halos over South Africa. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 240. ISSN 1364-6826

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Abstract

Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) above thunderclouds have been previously associated with variables such as the lightning Charge Moment Change (CMC), charge height, charge transfer, and lightning current rise-time. We show for the first time a comparison of the CMC, rise-time, fall-time, peak electric field, and peak current of the lightning discharges associated with 11 column, 11 carrot, and 18 sprites with halo. We found that carrot sprites are induced by a lightning discharge with CMC, peak electric field, and peak current greater and less than that for column sprites and sprites with halo, respectively. Sprites with a halo are initiated by a lightning discharge with a longer rise-time and fall-time than that for column and carrot sprites. Column sprites top altitude and carrot sprites brightest region altitude positively correlate with lightning rise-time. For carrot sprites top altitude, the results suggest that the electrical breakdown region decreases in altitude for a longer fall-time, greater peak electric field, and greater peak current. For the altitude of the sprites brightest region, column sprites correlate negatively with lightning fall-time, peak electric field, and CMC, and column sprites top altitude also correlates negatively with lightning peak electric field. For sprites with a halo top altitude increased with lightning fall-time and peak current, and sprites with a halo brightest altitude increased with an increase in lightning CMC. Halo diameters correlate positively with lightning fall-time, peak electric field, and peak current. The investigated lightning parameters can be used to identify the initiated sprites morphological type when optics are not available.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
Additional Information:
This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 240, 2022 DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2022.105957
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1900/1912
Subjects:
ID Code:
177921
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
21 Oct 2022 10:50
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
22 Nov 2022 11:55