Assessing pesticide use, Human exposure and environmental fate in Nigeria

Ogwo, Ekeoma and Halsall, Crispin and Semple, Kirk (2022) Assessing pesticide use, Human exposure and environmental fate in Nigeria. PhD thesis, Lancaster University.

[thumbnail of 2022EkeomaOgwoPhD]
Text (2022EkeomaOgwoPhD)
2022EkeomaOgwoPhD.pdf - Published Version

Download (2MB)


Over the years, oil has been the major source of revenue in Nigeria. Agriculture has been recommended as an alternative viable option, for this to be achieved the sustainable use of pesticides has to be key. Pesticides are used by farmers to ward off pests in farms, however it has been reported that these pesticides are inappropriately used which could adversely affect the environment and could potentially endanger humans exposed to them through their consumption of fruits and vegetables. This research aimed to investigate pesticide use among farms and its impact on the environment. 486 farmers in Akwa Ibom state were interviewed and 185 farmers representing the geo political zones of the country were equally interviewed. Field observations were also done and among other things, it revealed some farmers did not receive training on pesticide application. Soil samples were analysed to ascertain their levels of concentrations. It was found that pesticides usage is high as almost every farmer made use of pesticides, the chemicals were mostly misused. Farmers are constantly exposed to chemicals and levels of concentration of the pesticides were generally within the maximum residue levels and below the WHO recommended maximum limits and impliedly did not pose any significant threats. There is also a tendency that the area considered as ‘non-farm’ is not the case as some sections of those areas used to have farms situated in them and may not reflect the current practice, hence reasons for of the concentration levels found therein. The reported concentrations of the metabolites of DDT suggest that it is from either historical usage or the illegal usage of these pesticides or even a case of both factors. The research showed that most farmers did not receive training on pesticide application and the authorities mandated with carrying out enforcement in this regard by regulating the way it is used, need to do more.

Item Type:
Thesis (PhD)
ID Code:
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
07 Jun 2022 11:25
Last Modified:
11 Mar 2024 00:02