Influence of sex, season and environmental air quality on experimental human pneumococcal carriage acquisition:a retrospective cohort analysis

Cheliotis, Katerina S and Jewell, Christopher P and Solórzano, Carla and Urban, Britta and Collins, Andrea M and Mitsi, Elena and Pojar, Sherin and Nikolaou, Elissavet and German, Esther L and Reiné, Jesús and Gordon, Stephen B and Jochems, Simon P and Rylance, Jamie and Ferreira, Daniela M (2022) Influence of sex, season and environmental air quality on experimental human pneumococcal carriage acquisition:a retrospective cohort analysis. ERJ open research, 8 (2). ISSN 2312-0541

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Abstract

(pneumococcus) is the most commonly identified bacterial cause of pneumonia and the leading infectious cause of death in children under 5 years of age worldwide. Pneumococcal disease follows a seasonal pattern with increased incidence during winter. Pneumonia burden is also associated with poor air quality. Nasopharyngeal carriage of the bacterium is a pre-requisite of invasive disease. We aimed to determine if susceptibility to nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage varied by season and which environmental factors might explain such variation. We also evaluated the influence of sex on susceptibility of carriage. We collated data from five studies in which human volunteers underwent intranasal pneumococcal challenge. Generalised linear mixed-effects models were used to identify factors associated with altered risk of carriage acquisition, specifically climate and air-quality data. During 2011-2017, 374 healthy adults were challenged with type 6B pneumococcus. Odds of carriage were significantly lower in males (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.92; p=0.02), and higher with cooler temperatures (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-0.99; p=0.04). Likelihood of carriage was also associated with lower concentrations of local fine particulate matter concentrations (PM ) and increased local rainfall. In contrast to epidemiological series, experimental challenge allowed us to test propensity to acquisition during controlled exposures; immunological explanations for sex and climatic differences should be sought.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
ERJ open research
ID Code:
169468
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
27 Apr 2022 09:50
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
04 May 2022 02:56