Assessing the relationship between adverse pregnancy outcomes and area-level deprivation in Wales 2014-2019:A national population-based cross-sectional study

Brown, Heather and Jesurasa, Amrita and Bambra, Clare and Rankin, Judith and McNaughton, Amy and Heslehurst, Nicola (2021) Assessing the relationship between adverse pregnancy outcomes and area-level deprivation in Wales 2014-2019:A national population-based cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 11 (11). ISSN 2044-6055

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Abstract

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between deciles of area-level deprivation and seven adverse pregnancy outcomes in Wales. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting 64 699 live births in Wales from 31 March 2014 to 16 September 2019. Primary outcome variable We examined each of the following seven adverse pregnancy outcomes: (1) small for gestational age (SGA); (2) large for gestational age; (3) preterm birth; (4) third-degree or fourth-degree perineal tear; (5) major postpartum haemorrhage (MPPH); (6) a lower Apgar score at 5 min and (7) emergency caesarean section. Results There was no significant association between increasing aggregate measures of area-level deprivation and the adverse pregnancy outcomes we studied. Women living in an area with greater access to services are more likely to have a baby that is SGA (1.27, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.49), have a greater likelihood of a perineal tear (1.74, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.61), are significantly less likely to have MPPH (0.79, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.96), have a baby with an Apgar score of 0.26 higher (95% CI 0.22 to 0.29) and are significantly less likely to have an emergency caesarean section (0.81, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.88). Women living in areas with higher employment (0.26, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.36) and better health (0.26, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.35) were less likely to experience perineal tear. Conclusions There was no clear social-spatial gradient in area-level deprivation and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We found a stronger association for individual-level behavioural risk factors than area-level factors. These findings support the benefits that accessible and holistic person-centred care may bring through addressing individual behavioural risk factors. There is a need for improved data completeness and further individual-level data on risk factors such as employment and income to better understand the role which may be played by population-level policies and their pathways to affecting outcomes.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
BMJ Open
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700
Subjects:
ID Code:
169416
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
27 Apr 2022 10:40
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
04 May 2022 02:56