Category production norms for 117 concrete and abstract categories

Banks, Briony and Connell, Louise (2023) Category production norms for 117 concrete and abstract categories. Behavior Research Methods, 55 (3). pp. 1292-1313. ISSN 1554-3528

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We present a database of category production (aka semantic fluency) norms collected in the UK for 117 categories (67 concrete and 50 abstract). Participants verbally named as many category members as possible within 60 seconds, resulting in a large variety of over 2000 generated member concepts. The norms feature common measures of category production (production frequency, mean ordinal rank, first-rank frequency), as well as response times for all first-named category members, and typicality ratings collected from a separate participant sample. We provide two versions of the dataset: a referential version that groups together responses that relate to the same referent (e.g., hippo, hippopotamus) and a full version that retains all original responses to enable future lexical analysis. Correlational analyses with previous norms from the USA and UK demonstrate both consistencies and differences in English-language norms over time and between geographical regions. Further exploration of the norms reveals a number of structural and psycholinguistic differences between abstract and concrete categories. The data and analyses will be of use in the fields of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, psycholinguistics, and cognitive modelling, and to any researchers interested in semantic category structure. All data, including original participant recordings, are available at

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Behavior Research Methods
?? category productionsemantic fluencycategoriesabstract conceptsconcrete concepts ??
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Deposited On:
07 Feb 2022 11:35
Last Modified:
13 Jun 2024 01:54