Early identification of frailty : Developing an international delphi consensus on pre-frailty

Sezgin, D. and O'Donovan, M. and Woo, J. and Bandeen-Roche, K. and Liotta, G. and Fairhall, N. and Rodríguez-Laso, A. and Apóstolo, J. and Clarnette, R. and Holland, C. and Roller-Wirnsberger, R. and Illario, M. and Mañas, L.R. and Vollenbroek-Hutten, M. and Doğu, B.B. and Balci, C. and Pernas, F.O. and Paul, C. and Ahern, E. and Romero-Ortuno, R. and Molloy, W. and Cooney, M.T. and O'Shea, D. and Cooke, J. and Lang, D. and Hendry, A. and Kennelly, S. and Rockwood, K. and Clegg, A. and Liew, A. and O'Caoimh, R. (2022) Early identification of frailty : Developing an international delphi consensus on pre-frailty. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 99: 104586. ISSN 0167-4943

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Background:: Frailty is associated with a prodromal stage called pre-frailty, a potentially reversible and highly prevalent intermediate state before frailty becomes established. Despite being widely-used in the literature and increasingly in clinical practice, it is poorly understood. Objective:: To establish consensus on the construct and approaches to diagnose and manage pre-frailty. Methods:: We conducted a modified (electronic, two-round) Delphi consensus study. The questionnaire included statements concerning the concept, aspects and causes, types, mechanism, assessment, consequences, prevention and management of pre-frailty. Qualitative and quantitative analysis methods were employed. An agreement level of 70% was applied. Results:: Twenty-three experts with different backgrounds from 12 countries participated. In total, 70 statements were circulated in Round 1. Of these, 52.8% were accepted. Following comments, 51 statements were re-circulated in Round 2 and 92.1% were accepted. It was agreed that physical and non-physical factors including psychological and social capacity are involved in the development of pre-frailty, potentially adversely affecting health and health-related quality of life. Experts considered pre-frailty to be an age-associated multi-factorial, multi-dimensional, and non-linear process that does not inevitably lead to frailty. It can be reversed or attenuated by targeted interventions. Brief, feasible, and validated tools and multidimensional assessment are recommended to identify pre-frailty. Conclusions:: Consensus suggests that pre-frailty lies along the frailty continuum. It is a multidimensional risk-state associated with one or more of physical impairment, cognitive decline, nutritional deficiencies and socioeconomic disadvantages, predisposing to the development of frailty. More research is needed to agree an operational definition and optimal management strategies.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Additional Information:
This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 99, 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2021.104586
Uncontrolled Keywords:
?? consensusdefinitiondelphifrailtygeriatric assessmentolder peoplepre-frailtygerontologyhealth(social science)geriatrics and gerontologyageing ??
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Deposited On:
18 Jan 2022 11:45
Last Modified:
09 Jul 2024 00:17