Gisekia(Gisekiaceae):Phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, and ecophysiology of a poorly known C4lineage in the Caryophyllales

Bissinger, Kerstin and Khoshravesh, Roxana and Kotrade, Jan Peter and Oakley, Jason and Sage, Tammy L. and Sage, Rowan F. and Hartmann, Heidrun E. K. and Kadereit, Gudrun (2014) Gisekia(Gisekiaceae):Phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, and ecophysiology of a poorly known C4lineage in the Caryophyllales. American Journal of Botany, 101 (3). pp. 499-509. ISSN 0002-9122

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• Premise of the study: Gisekiaceae are a monogeneric family of the core Caryophyllales distributed in arid regions of Africa and Asia. The only widespread species of the genus, Gisekia pharnaceoides, performs C4 photosynthesis based on CO2 compensation point measurements. This study investigates the C4 syndrome and its evolution in Gisekia. The infrageneric relationships, distribution and bioclimatic preferences of Gisekia are also investigated. • Methods: Leaf gas exchange characteristics, activity of Rubisco and major C4 cycle enzymes, and ultrastructural characteristics of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells are studied for Gisekia pharnaceoides. δ13C values and leaf anatomy are analyzed for all species. A dated molecular phylogeny of 39 accessions representing all species of Gisekiaceae and 14 representatives of closely related core Caryophyllales families is generated using four cp markers and ITS. The precise current distribution and bioclimatic niche of Gisekia is assessed on the basis of 520 georeferenced specimen localities. • Key results: All traditionally recognized species of Gisekia are C4 plants with atriplicoid Kranz anatomy. Gisekia pharnaceoides uses the NAD-ME biochemical type. The molecular phylogeny demonstrated two East African clades nested within South African clades, demonstrating migration along the arid areas of eastern Africa during the Late Miocene/Pliocene Epochs. Most traditionally defined species are polyphyletic. • Conclusions: Gisekia represents an isolated C4 lineage within core Caryophyllales dating back to the Miocene Epoch and probably spread along the African arid corridor from a South African center of origin. The seven currently recognized species should be treated as one polymorphic species or species complex, Gisekia pharnaceoides agg.

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Journal Article
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American Journal of Botany
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11 Jan 2022 15:20
Last Modified:
21 Sep 2023 03:13