Spatial distribution and risk factors for human cysticercosis in Colombia

Galipó, E. and Dixon, M.A. and Fronterrè, C. and Cucunubá, Z.M. and Basáñez, M.-G. and Stevens, K. and Flórez Sánchez, A.C. and Walker, M. (2021) Spatial distribution and risk factors for human cysticercosis in Colombia. Parasites and Vectors, 14 (1). ISSN 1756-3305

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Background: Cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected tropical disease (NTD) that affects humans and pigs following the ingestion of Taenia solium eggs. Human cysticercosis poses a substantial public health burden in endemic countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to target high-endemicity settings with enhanced interventions in 17 countries by 2030. Between 2008 and 2010, Colombia undertook a national baseline serosurvey of unprecedented scale, which led to an estimated seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercus antibodies among the general population of 8.6%. Here, we use contemporary geostatistical approaches to analyse this unique dataset with the aim of understanding the spatial distribution and risk factors associated with human cysticercosis in Colombia to inform how best to target intervention strategies. Methods: We used a geostatistical model to estimate individual and household risk factors associated with seropositivity to T. solium cysticercus antibodies from 29,253 people from 133 municipalities in Colombia. We used both independent and spatially structured random effects at neighbourhood/village and municipality levels to account for potential clustering of exposure to T. solium. We present estimates of the distribution and residual correlation of seropositivity at the municipality level. Results: High seroprevalence was identified in municipalities located in the north and south of Colombia, with spatial correlation in seropositivity estimated up to approximately 140 km. Statistically significant risk factors associated with seropositivity to T. solium cysticercus were related to age, sex, educational level, socioeconomic status, use of rainwater, consumption of partially cooked/raw pork meat and possession of dogs. Conclusions: In Colombia, the distribution of human cysticercosis is influenced by socioeconomic considerations, education and environmental factors related to the spread of T. solium eggs. This information can be used to tailor national intervention strategies, such as targeting spatial hotspots and more highly exposed groups, including displaced people and women. Large-scale seroprevalence surveys accompanied by geospatial mapping are an essential step towards reaching the WHO’s 2021‒2030 NTD roadmap targets. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

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Journal Article
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Parasites and Vectors
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14 Dec 2021 14:40
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18 Sep 2023 01:59