Beyond the horizon, backhaul connectivity for offshore IoT devices

Zaidi, K.S. and Hina, S. and Jawad, M. and Khan, A.N. and Khan, M.U.S. and Pervaiz, H.B. and Nawaz, R. (2021) Beyond the horizon, backhaul connectivity for offshore IoT devices. Energies, 14 (21). ISSN 1996-1073

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Abstract

The prevalent use of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices over the Sea, such as, on oil and gas platforms, cargo, and cruise ships, requires high-speed connectivity of these devices. Although satellite based backhaul links provide vast coverage, but they are inherently constrained by low data rates and expensive bandwidth. If a signal propagated over the sea is trapped between the sea surface and the Evaporation Duct (ED) layer, it can propagate beyond the horizon, achieving long-range backhaul connectivity with minimal attenuation. This paper presents experimental measurements and simulations conducted in the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) Band Wi-Fi frequencies, such as 5.8 GHz to provide hassle-free offshore wireless backhaul connectivity for IoT devices over the South China Sea in the Malaysian region. Real-time experimental measurements are recorded for 10 km to 80 km path lengths to determine average path loss values. The fade margin calculation for ED must accommodate additional slow fading on top of average path loss with respect to time and climate-induced ED height variations to ensure reliable communication links for IoT devices. Experimental results confirm that 99% link availability of is achievable with minimum 50 Mbps data rate and up to 60 km distance over the Sea to connect offshore IoT devices. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Energies
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1700
Subjects:
ID Code:
161835
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
04 Nov 2021 16:50
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
22 Nov 2021 16:50