On the role of solar wind expansion as a source of whistler waves:Scattering of suprathermal electrons and heat flux regulation in the inner heliosphere

Micera, A. and Zhukov, A.N. and López, R.A. and Boella, E. and Tenerani, A. and Velli, M. and Lapenta, G. and Innocenti, M.E. (2021) On the role of solar wind expansion as a source of whistler waves:Scattering of suprathermal electrons and heat flux regulation in the inner heliosphere. Astrophysical Journal, 919 (1). ISSN 0004-637X

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Abstract

The role of solar wind expansion in generating whistler waves is investigated using the EB-iPic3D code, which models solar wind expansion self-consistently within a fully kinetic semi-implicit approach. The simulation is initialized with an electron velocity distribution function modeled after observations of the Parker Solar Probe during its first perihelion at 0.166 au, consisting of a dense core and an antisunward strahl. This distribution function is initially stable with respect to kinetic instabilities. Expansion drives the solar wind into successive regimes where whistler heat flux instabilities are triggered. These instabilities produce sunward whistler waves initially characterized by predominantly oblique propagation with respect to the interplanetary magnetic field. The excited waves interact with the electrons via resonant scattering processes. As a consequence, the strahl pitch angle distribution broadens and its drift velocity reduces. The strahl electrons are scattered in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, and an electron halo is formed. At a later stage, resonant electron firehose instability is triggered and further affects the electron temperature anisotropy as the solar wind expands. Wave–particle interaction processes are accompanied by a substantial reduction of the solar wind heat flux. The simulated whistler waves are in qualitative agreement with observations in terms of wave frequencies, amplitudes, and propagation angles. Our work proposes an explanation for the observations of oblique and parallel whistler waves in the solar wind. We conclude that solar wind expansion has to be factored in when trying to explain kinetic processes at different heliocentric distances.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Information:
This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication/published in Astrophysical Journal. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac1067
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1900/1912
Subjects:
ID Code:
161447
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
25 Oct 2021 08:45
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
22 Nov 2021 16:49