Use of open-ended questionnaires to examine the effects of tinnitus and its relation to patient-reported outcome measures

Manchaiah, Vinaya and Andersson, Gerhard and Fagelson, Marc A. and Boyd, Ryan L and Beukes, Eldré W. (2022) Use of open-ended questionnaires to examine the effects of tinnitus and its relation to patient-reported outcome measures. International Journal of Audiology, 61 (7). pp. 592-599. ISSN 1499-2027

Text (TIJA-2021-03-0117.R2_Proof_hi)
TIJA_2021_03_0117.R2_Proof_hi.pdf - Accepted Version
Restricted to Repository staff only until 2 May 2023.
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (459kB)


Objective: The primary aim of the study was to examine automated linguistic analysis of open-ended problem (PQ) and life-effects (LEQ) questionnaires to understand the psychological effects of tinnitus. Design: The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants completed online questionnaires which included demographic questions, several standardized patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and two open-ended questions focusing on PQ and LEQ related to tinnitus. The response to open-ended questions were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) software to identify frequency of text on various linguistic dimensions relevant to tinnitus. Study Sample: 336 individuals with tinnitus. Results: The study results point to two broad findings. First, although PQ and LEQ have some similarities with PROMs (e.g., the linguistic dimension negative emotions having a weak positive correlation with anxiety and depression), no correlation with number of dimensions suggest that the open-ended questions identify additional elements that are not captured in PROMs. Second, more linguistic dimensions from the PQ correlate with PROMs compared to LEQ suggesting that the current PROMs are problem oriented. Conclusions: The study results support the idea that use of open-ended questions in addition to PROMs may help optimize the efforts in examining the effects of chronic conditions such as tinnitus.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
International Journal of Audiology
Additional Information:
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in International Journal of Audiology on 11/02/2021, available online:
Uncontrolled Keywords:
ID Code:
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
18 Oct 2021 09:20
Last Modified:
04 Jul 2022 08:50