Modeling of Flame Retardants in Typical Urban Indoor Environments in China during 2010-2030:Influence of Policy and Decoration and Implications for Human Exposure

Li, Z. and Zhu, Y. and Wang, D. and Zhang, X. and Jones, K.C. and Ma, J. and Wang, P. and Yang, R. and Li, Y. and Pei, Z. and Zhang, Q. and Jiang, G. (2021) Modeling of Flame Retardants in Typical Urban Indoor Environments in China during 2010-2030:Influence of Policy and Decoration and Implications for Human Exposure. Environmental Science and Technology, 55 (17). pp. 11745-11755. ISSN 0013-936X

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Abstract

Novel flame retardants (FRs) are of increasing concern, given growing evidence of health effects and use to replace polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). This study modeled combined effects of use policies and decoration on indoor FRs and human exposure for 18 widely used PBDEs, organophosphate esters (OPEs), and novel brominated flame retardants in typical urban indoor environments in China. The current estimated indoor emission rates and average concentrations in air and dust of the 18 FRs were 102-103 ng/h, 561 ng/m3, and 1.5 × 104 ng/g, respectively, with seven OPEs dominant (>69%). Different use patterns exist between China and the US and Europe. Scenarios modeled over 2010-2030 suggested that decoration would affect indoor concentrations of FRs more than use policies, and use policies were mainly responsible for shifts of FR composition. Additional use of hexabromobenzene and 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene and removal of BDE-209 would make the total human exposure to the modeled FR mixture increase after the restriction of penta- and octa-BDE but decrease after deca-BDE was banned. Better knowledge of the toxicity of substitutes is needed for a complete understanding of the health implications of such changes. Toddlers may be more affected by use changes than adults. Such studies are supportive to the management of FR use.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Environmental Science and Technology
Additional Information:
This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Environmental Science and Technology Copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.1c03402
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1600
Subjects:
ID Code:
161010
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
14 Oct 2021 10:45
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
15 Oct 2021 04:25