Phosphorus application enhances alkane hydroxylase gene abundance in the rhizosphere of wild plants grown in petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

Hoang, S.A. and Lamb, D. and Sarkar, B. and Seshadri, B. and Kit Yu, R.M. and Anh Tran, T.K. and O'Connor, J. and Rinklebe, J. and Kirkham, M.B. and Vo, H.T. and Bolan, N.S. (2022) Phosphorus application enhances alkane hydroxylase gene abundance in the rhizosphere of wild plants grown in petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Environmental Research, 204. ISSN 0013-9351

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Abstract

This study assessed the ability of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to remediate the rhizosphere of three wild plant species (Banksia seminuda, a tree; Chloris truncata, a grass; and Hakea prostrata, a shrub) growing in a soil contaminated with total (aliphatic) petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Plant growth, photosynthesis (via chlorophyll fluorescence), soil microbial activity, alkane hydroxylase AlkB (aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading) gene abundance, and TPH removal were evaluated 120 days after planting. Overall, although TPH served as an additional carbon source for soil microorganisms, the presence of TPH in soil resulted in decreased plant growth and photosynthesis. However, growth, photosynthesis, microbial activities, and AlkB gene abundance were enhanced by the application of P fertilizer, thereby increasing TPH removal rates, although the extent and optimum P dosage varied among the plant species. The highest TPH removal (64.66%) was observed in soil planted with the Poaceae species, C. truncata, and amended with 100 mg P kg−1 soil, while H. prostrata showed higher TPH removal compared to the plant belonging to the same Proteaceae family, B. seminuda. The presence of plants resulted in higher AlkB gene abundance and TPH removal relative to the unplanted control. The removal of TPH was associated directly with AlkB gene abundance (R2 > 0.9, p < 0.001), which was affected by plant identity and P levels. The results indicated that an integrated approach involving wild plant species and optimum P amendment, which was determined through experimentation using different plant species, was an efficient way to remediate soil contaminated with TPH.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Environmental Research
Additional Information:
This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Environmental Research. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Environmental Research, 204, 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111924
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2300
Subjects:
ID Code:
161009
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
14 Oct 2021 10:40
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
15 Oct 2021 04:24