Risks of COVID-19 by occupation in NHS workers in England

van der Plaat, Diana and Madan, Ira and Coggon, David and van Tongeren, Martie and Edge, Rhiannon and Muiry, Rupert and Parsons, Vaughan and cullinan, Paul (2022) Risks of COVID-19 by occupation in NHS workers in England. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 79 (3). pp. 176-183. ISSN 1351-0711

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Abstract Objective To quantify occupational risks of COVID-19 among healthcare staff during the first wave (9 March 2020–31 July 2020) of the pandemic in England. Methods We used pseudonymised data on 902 813 individuals employed by 191 National Health Service trusts to explore demographic and occupational risk factors for sickness absence ascribed to COVID-19 (n=92 880). We estimated ORs by multivariable logistic regression. Results With adjustment for employing trust, demographic characteristics and previous frequency of sickness absence, risk relative to administrative/clerical occupations was highest in ‘additional clinical services’ (care assistants and other occupations directly supporting those in clinical roles) (OR 2.31 (2.25 to 2.37)), registered nursing and midwifery professionals (OR 2.28 (2.23 to 2.34)) and allied health professionals (OR 1.94 (1.88 to 2.01)) and intermediate in doctors and dentists (OR 1.55 (1.50 to 1.61)). Differences in risk were higher after the employing trust had started to care for documented patients with COVID-19, and were reduced, but not eliminated, following additional adjustment for exposure to infected patients or materials, assessed by a job-exposure matrix. For prolonged COVID-19 sickness absence (episodes lasting >14 days), the variation in risk by staff group was somewhat greater. Conclusions After allowance for possible bias and confounding by non-occupational exposures, we estimated that relative risks for COVID-19 among most patient-facing occupations were between 1.5 and 2.5. The highest risks were in those working in additional clinical services, nursing and midwifery and in allied health professions. Better protective measures for these staff groups should be a priority. COVID-19 may meet criteria for compensation as an occupational disease in some healthcare occupations.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Additional Information:
This article has been accepted for publication in Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2021 following peer review, and the Version of Record can be accessed online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2021-107628 © Authors (or their employer(s)) OR “© BMJ Publishing Group Ltd” ( for assignments of BMJ Case Reports)
Uncontrolled Keywords:
?? public health, environmental and occupational health ??
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Deposited On:
05 Oct 2021 13:05
Last Modified:
18 Jun 2024 00:45