Nickel in soil and water:Sources, biogeochemistry, and remediation using biochar

El-Naggar, A. and Ahmed, N. and Mosa, A. and Niazi, N.K. and Yousaf, B. and Sharma, A. and Sarkar, B. and Cai, Y. and Chang, S.X. (2021) Nickel in soil and water:Sources, biogeochemistry, and remediation using biochar. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 419. ISSN 0304-3894

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Abstract

Nickel (Ni) is a potentially toxic element that contaminates soil and water, threatens food and water security, and hinders sustainable development globally. Biochar has emerged as a promising novel material for remediating Ni-contaminated environments. However, the potential for pristine and functionalized biochars to immobilize/adsorb Ni in soil and water, and the mechanisms involved have not been systematically reviewed. Here, we critically review the different dimensions of Ni contamination and remediation in soil and water, including its occurrence and biogeochemical behavior under different environmental conditions and ecotoxicological hazards, and its remediation using biochar. Biochar is effective in immobilizing Ni in soil and water via ion exchange, electrostatic attraction, surface complexation, (co)precipitation, physical adsorption, and reduction due to the biogeochemistry of Ni and the interaction of Ni with surface functional groups and organic/inorganic compounds contained in biochar. The efficiency for Ni removal is consistently greater with functionalized than pristine biochars. Physical (e.g., ball milling) and chemical (e.g., alkali/acidic treatment) activation achieve higher surface area, porosity, and active surface groups on biochar that enhance Ni immobilization. This review highlights possible risks and challenges of biochar application in Ni remediation, suggests future research directions, and discusses implications for environmental agencies and decision-makers.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Journal of Hazardous Materials
Additional Information:
This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Hazardous Materials. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Hazardous Materials, 419, 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126421
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2300/2307
Subjects:
ID Code:
158511
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
17 Aug 2021 11:25
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
13 Oct 2021 04:24