Landmarks in wayfinding:a review of the existing literature

Yesiltepe, Demet and Conroy-Dalton, Ruth and Ozbil Torun, Ayse (2021) Landmarks in wayfinding:a review of the existing literature. Cognitive Processing, 22. pp. 369-410. ISSN 1612-4782

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Landmarks are accepted as one of the vital elements in both virtual and real environments during wayfinding tasks. This paper provides an overview of the existing literature on the selection of landmarks in wayfinding mostly in large-scale urban environments and outdoors by discussing two main aspects of landmarks: visibility and salience. Environments and layouts used in previous studies, different tasks given to people and the main findings are explained and compared. Summary tables are created from these findings. The review concludes that there is mostly a consensus on the selection of landmarks, when considering their location. Accordingly, landmarks on route and also at decision points (with a turn) are more effective during wayfinding tasks. However, visibility of landmarks as well as visual and cognitive saliency need to be further investigated using different environments, tasks or different levels of familiarity with environments.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Cognitive Processing
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Deposited On:
18 Mar 2021 14:00
Last Modified:
22 Nov 2022 10:05