Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of domestic fuels in Delhi, India

Stewart, Gareth and Acton, W. Joe F. and Nelson, Beth S. and Vaughan, Adam Robert and Hopkins, James R. and Arya, Rahul and Mondal, Arnab and Jangirh, Ritu and Ahlawat, Sakshi and Yadav, Lokesh and Sharma, Sudhir K. and Dunmore, Rachel E. and Yunus, Siti S. M. and Hewitt, C N and Nemitz, Eiko and Mullinger, Neil and Gadi, Ranu and Sahu, Lokesh K. and Tripathi, Nidhi and Rickard, Andrew and Lee, James D. and Mandal, Tuhin K. and Hamilton, Jacqueline F. (2021) Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of domestic fuels in Delhi, India. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21 (4). pp. 2383-2406. ISSN 1680-7316

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Twenty-nine different fuel types used in residential dwellings in northern India were collected from across Delhi (76 samples in total). Emission factors of a wide range of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) (192 compounds in total) were measured during controlled burning experiments using dual-channel gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (DC-GC-FID), two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC-FID), proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and solid-phase extraction two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPE-GC × GC–ToF-MS). On average, 94 % speciation of total measured NMVOC emissions was achieved across all fuel types. The largest contributors to emissions from most fuel types were small non-aromatic oxygenated species, phenolics and furanics. The emission factors (in g kg−1) for total gas-phase NMVOCs were fuelwood (18.7, 4.3–96.7), cow dung cake (62.0, 35.3–83.0), crop residue (37.9, 8.9–73.8), charcoal (5.4, 2.4–7.9), sawdust (72.4, 28.6–115.5), municipal solid waste (87.3, 56.6–119.1) and liquefied petroleum gas (5.7, 1.9–9.8). The emission factors measured in this study allow for better characterisation, evaluation and understanding of the air quality impacts of residential solid-fuel combustion in India.

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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
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24 Feb 2021 11:01
Last Modified:
18 Sep 2023 01:53