Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in Ambient Air in Turkey : Regional Sources and Controlling Factors

Gungormus, E. and Sofuoglu, A. and Celik, H. and Gedik, K. and Mulder, M.D. and Lammel, G. and Sofuoglu, S.C. and Okten, E. and Ugranli, T. and Birgul, A. and Jones, K.C. and Kurt-Karakus, P.B. (2021) Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in Ambient Air in Turkey : Regional Sources and Controlling Factors. Environmental Science and Technology, 55 (14). pp. 9434-9443. ISSN 0013-936X

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As a result of its unique location, Turkey receives air masses from Europe, Russia, Middle East, and Africa, making it an important place in terms of long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) of contaminants. Atmospheric levels of 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 45 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in two metropolitan cities, Istanbul and Izmir, on a weekly basis from May 2014 to May 2015. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivatives were dominant OCP species, followed by isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) at both sites. The annual mean concentration of σDDX (sum of o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDD, o,p′-DDE, and p,p′-DDE) was 82 pg/m3 for Istanbul and 89 pg/m3 for Izmir, while these levels were about 46 pg/m3 for σHCHs (sum of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-HCH) at both of the sites. At both stations, tri- and tetra-PCBs and tetra- and penta-PBDEs were dominant congeners. The temperature dependence indicates that both LRT and local contaminated areas contribute to the elevated levels. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART) showed a few potential source regions in northern Africa and Middle East, southern-southwestern and eastern Europe including Russia, as well as from local domestic metropolitan areas.

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Journal Article
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Environmental Science and Technology
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This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Environmental Science and Technology, copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see
Uncontrolled Keywords:
?? active samplingorganochlorine pesticides (ocps)particle dispersion modelingpolybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes)polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs)turkeyatmospheric movementsisomerspolychlorinated biphenylstemperature distributiondichlorodiphenyltrichloroet ??
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18 Feb 2021 12:00
Last Modified:
25 Jun 2024 01:34