High-gradient behavior of a dipole-mode rf structure

Woolley, B. and Burt, G. and Dexter, A.C. and Peacock, R. and Millar, W.L. and Catalan Lasheras, N. and Degiovanni, A. and Grudiev, A. and McMonagle, G. and Syratchev, I. and Wuensch, W. and Rodriguez Castro, E. and Giner Navarro, J. (2020) High-gradient behavior of a dipole-mode rf structure. Physical Review Accelerators and Beams, 23 (12): 122002. ISSN 2469-9888

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A normal-conducting, X-band traveling wave structure operating in the dipole mode has been systematically high-gradient tested to gain insight into the maximum possible gradients in these types of structure. Measured structure conditioning, breakdown behavior, and achieved surface fields are reported as well as a postmortem analysis of the breakdown position and a scanning electron microscope analysis of the high-field surfaces. The results of these measurements are then compared to high-gradient results from monopole-mode cavities. Scaled to a breakdown rate of 10-6, the cavities were found to operate at a peak electric field of 154 MV/m and a peak modified Poynting vector Sc of 5.48 MW/mm2. The study provides important input for the further development of dipole-mode cavities for use in the Compact Linear Collider as a crab cavity and dipole-mode cavities for use in x-ray free-electron lasers as well as for studies of the fundamental processes in vacuum arcs. Of particular relevance are the unique field patterns in dipole cavities compared to monopole cavities, where the electric and magnetic fields peak in orthogonal planes, which allow the separation of the role of electric and magnetic fields in breakdown via postmortem damage observation. The azimuthal variation of breakdown crater density is measured and is fitted to sinusoidal functions. The best fit is a power law fit of exponent 6. This is significant, as it shows how breakdown probability varies over a surface area with a varying electric field after conditioning to a given peak field.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams
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Deposited On:
14 Jan 2021 10:16
Last Modified:
31 Dec 2023 01:12