In situ micro gas tungsten constricted arc welding of ultra-thin walled 2.275 mm outer diameter grade 2 commercially pure titanium tubing

Cooper, L. and Crouvizier, M. and Edwards, S. and French, R. and Gannaway, F. and Kemp-Russell, P. and Marin-Reyes, H. and Mercer, I. and Rendell-Read, A. and Viehhauser, G. and Yeadon, W. (2020) In situ micro gas tungsten constricted arc welding of ultra-thin walled 2.275 mm outer diameter grade 2 commercially pure titanium tubing. Journal of Instrumentation, 15 (6). ISSN 1748-0221

Full text not available from this repository.

Abstract

Ultra-thin walled cooling tubes for heat exchangers and condenser units have applications in multiple high-value manufacturing industries. Grade 2 commercially pure titanium (CP-2 Ti) requires far less mass to achieve the same mass flow handling abilities as stainless steel tubing yet it is more challenging to join, particularly at wall thicknesses less than 500 μm (termed ultra-thin walled tube). This paper presents a single-pass joinery method that produces reliable welds on 2.275 mm outer diameter (OD), 160 ± 10 μm wall thickness tubing with a service life of 20 of more years. This is achieved through an automated orbital gas tungsten constricted arc welding (GTCAW) process incorporating enveloping low-mass sleeves used in tandem with a buttressing internal gas pressure to support the molten metal and maintain consistent internal diameter inside the tube. The industrial applicability is demonstrated through the production of a 1:1 scale mock-up of a fixed geometry CO2 cooling circuit for a next-generation particle detector. The tensile strengths of the joints, 403.8 ± 4.2 MPa, exceed the tensile strength of the parent CP-2 Ti. © 2020 CERN.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Journal of Instrumentation
Additional Information:
Export Date: 10 August 2020 Correspondence Address: Yeadon, W.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of SheffieldUnited Kingdom; email: will.yeadon@Sheffield.ac.uk References: Collaboration, A., The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (2008) Jinst, 3 (8), p. S08003; Collaboration, A., Atlas Phase-II Upgrade Scoping Document; Collaboration, A., Technical Design Report for the Atlas Inner Tracker Strip Detector; Astm, (2014) Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welded Pipe; Asme, (2014) Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welded Pipe; Astm, (2017) Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Titanium and Titanium Alloy Condenser and Heat Exchanger Tubes; Yunlian, Q., Ju, D., Quan, H., Liying, Z., Electron beam welding, laser beam welding and gas tungsten arc welding of titanium sheet (2000) Mater. Sci. Eng., 280, p. 177; Garcia, J.A.O., Dias, N.S., Lima, G.L., Pereira, W.D.B., Nogueira, N.F., Advances of orbital gas tungsten arc welding for Brazilian space applications-Experimental setup (2010) J. Aerosp. Technol. Manag., 2, p. 211; Miyamoto, Y., Nishimura, T., Fukuhara, Y., Koyama, Y., Narita And E Sawahisa, K., Production of thin wall welded titanium tubes by high frequency pulsed arc welding (1986) Trans. Iron Steel Inst. Jap., 26, p. 484; Carvalho, S., Baptista, C., Lima, M., Fatigue in laser welded titanium tubes intended for use in aircraft pneumatic systems (2016) Int. J. Fatigue, 90, p. 47; Kumar, A., Sapp, M., Vincelli, J., Gupta, M.C., A study on laser cleaning and pulsed gas tungsten arc welding of Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy tubes (2010) J. Mater. Process. Technol., 210, p. 64; Leary, R.K., Merson, E., Birmingham, K., Harvey, D., Brydson, R., Microstructural and microtextural analysis of InterPulse GTCAW welds in Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V (2010) Mater. Sci. Eng., 527, p. 7694; French, R., Marin-Reyes, H., Investigation of the Tig Orbital Welding Process on Tube-to-tube Joints in Titanium & Stainless Steel Thin Wall Tubes; French, R., Marin-Reyes, H., Welding Performance Evaluation of the Vbc Instrument Engineering IP50 Tig Orbital Heat Management System; Wang, R., Welsch, G., Joining titanium materials with tungsten inert gas welding, laser welding, and infrared brazing (1995) ;J. Prosthet. Dent., 74, p. 521; Oh, M.S., Lee, J.-Y., Park, J.K., Continuous cooling-to-transformation behaviors of extra-pure and commercially pure Ti (2004) Metall. Mater. Trans., 35, p. 3071; Karpagaraj, A., Siva Shanmugam, N., Sankaranarayanasamy, K., Experimental investigations and numerical prediction on the effect of shielding area and post flow time in the GTAW of CP Ti sheets (2018) Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 101, p. 2933; Winarto, Anis, M., Laili Solichin, M., Influence of shielding gas on the mechanical properties and visual surface of the welded cp titanium (2009) Weld. World, 53, p. 523; Bendikiene, R., Baskutis, S., Baskutiene, J., Ciuplys, A., Kacinskas, T., Comparative study of TIG welded commercially pure titanium (2018) J. Manuf. Process., 36, p. 155; Murthy, K.K., Sundaresan, S., Phase transformations in a welded near-α titanium as a function of weld cooling rate and post-weld heat treatment conditions (1998) J. Mater. Sci., 33, p. 817; Kim, S.K., Park, J.K., In-situ measurement of continuous cooling β → α transformation behavior of CP-Ti (2002) Metall. Mater. Trans., 33, p. 1051; Lonardelli, I., Gey, N., Wenk, H.-R., Humbert, M., Vogel, S., Lutterotti, L., In situ observation of texture evolution during α → β and β → α phase transformations in titanium alloys investigated by neutron diffraction (2007) Acta Mater., 55, p. 5718; Murphy, A.B., A perspective on arc welding research: The importance of the Arc, unresolved questions and future directions (2015) Plasma Chem. Plasma Process., 35, p. 471; Bel'Skaya, E.A., Kulyamina, E.Y., Electrical resistivity of titanium in the temperature range from 290 to 1800 K (2007) High Temp., 45, p. 785; Yousefieh, M., Shamanian, M., Saatchi, A., Influence of heat input in pulsed current GTAW process on microstructure and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welds (2011) J. Iron Steel Res. Int., 18, p. 65; Traidia, A., Roger, F., Numerical and experimental study of arc and weld pool behaviour for pulsed current GTA welding (2011) Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 54, p. 2163; Balasubramanian, M., Jayabalan, V., Balasubramanian, V., Response surface approach to optimize the pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding parameters of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy (2007) Met. Mater. Int., 13, p. 335; Balasubramanian, M., Jayabalan, V., Balasubramanian, V., Effect of process parameters of pulsed current tungsten inert gas welding on weld pool geometry of titanium welds (2010) Acta Metall. Sin. (English Lett.), 23, p. 312; Babu, N.K., Raman, S.G.S., Influence of current pulsing on microstructure and mechanical properties of ti-6al-4v TIG weldments (2006) Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining, 11, p. 442; Tsai, C.L., Hou, C.A., Theoretical analysis of weld pool behavior in the pulsed current GTAW process (1988) J. Heat Transfer, 110, p. 160; Saedi, H., Unkel, W., Arc and Weld Pool Behavior for Pulsed Current GTAW High-frequency current pulsing can be used to control the geometry of a GTA weld pool (1988) Weld J., p. 247s; Yang, M., Qi, B., Cong, B., Liu, F., Yang, Z., Chu, P.K., Study on electromagnetic force in arc plasma with UHFP-GTAW of Ti-6Al-4V (2013) Ieee Trans. Plasma Sci., 41, p. 2561; Qi, B.J., Yang, M.X., Cong, B.Q., Liu, F.J., The effect of arc behavior on weld geometry by high-frequency pulse GTAW process with 0cr18ni9ti stainless steel (2012) Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 66, p. 1545; Yang, M., Zheng, H., Li, L., Arc shape characteristics with ultra-high-frequency pulsed arc welding (2017) Appl. Sci., 7, p. 45; Mannion, B., Heinzman, J., (1999) Setting up and Determining Parameters for Orbital Tube Welding; Mannion, B., Heinzman, J., Determining parameters for GTAW (1999) Pract. Weld. Today; Metallic Materials-Tensile Testing-Part 1: Method of Test at Room Temperature; Mouritz, A., Titanium alloys for aerospace structures and engines (2012) Introduction to Aerospace Materials, pp. 202-223; Karpagaraj, A., Siva Shanmugam, N., Sankaranarayanasamy, K., Some studies on mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of automated TIG welding of thin commercially pure titanium sheets (2015) Mater. Sci. Eng., 640, p. 180; Astm, (2012) E407-07 Standard Practice for Microetching Metals and Alloys; Astm, (2013) E112-13: Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size; Nasa, Process Specification for Automatic and Machine Arc Welding of Steel and Nickel Alloy Hardware (2012) Nasa Eng. Dir., pp. 1-29; Lin, M.L., Eagar, T.W., Pressures produced by gas tungsten arcs (1986) Metall. Trans., 17, p. 601
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2600/2610
Subjects:
ID Code:
146424
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
02 Sep 2020 14:55
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
02 Sep 2020 14:55