Conversion of biochar to sulfonated solid acid catalysts for spiramycin hydrolysis:Insights into the sulfonation process

Xie, Q. and Yang, X. and Xu, K. and Chen, Z. and Sarkar, B. and Dou, X. (2020) Conversion of biochar to sulfonated solid acid catalysts for spiramycin hydrolysis:Insights into the sulfonation process. Environmental Research, 188. ISSN 0013-9351

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Abstract

Biochar has been recognized as a sustainable platform for developing functional materials including catalysts. This work demonstrated a method of converting biochar to sulfonated solid-acid catalysts, and the effectiveness of the catalysts for spiramycin hydrolysis was examined. Two biochar samples (H and X) were sulfonated with three reagents (concentrated H2SO4, ClSO3H and p-toluenesulfonic acid (TsOH)) under hydrothermal, simple heating, ambient temperature, and CHCl3-assisted treatments. The effect of elemental compositions and structural characteristics of the feeding materials (H and X) on the acidic properties of the sulfonated biochars were investigated. The results showed that the sulfonation ability of the three reagents was in the order of ClSO3H > H2SO4 > TsOH, while hydrothermal treatment provided the highest total acidity, and largest amount of acidic groups (e.g., SO3H, COOH and Ar-OH). Biochar X with higher O/C and N contents, and less graphitic features showed superior acidic properties than biochar H under all the employed treatments. The hydrolytic efficiencies of the sulfonated biochars under 200 W of microwave irradiation increased with increasing total acidity, and the amount of SO3H and COOH groups. After sulfonation, the O/C of biochars increased, while H/C decreased, and the aromatic and graphitic features did not change. The electromagnetic energy absorbed by the sulfonated biochars did not notably contribute to spiramycin hydrolysis. Thus, this work demonstrated an effective and promising method for maneuvering biochar-based functional solid-acid catalysts for antibiotic remediation in contaminated water. © 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Environmental Research
Additional Information:
This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Environmental Research. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Environmental Research, 188, 2020 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109887
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2300
Subjects:
ID Code:
145927
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
27 Jul 2020 14:35
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
23 Nov 2020 15:56