Emergence of an Ultra-Red Ultra-Massive Galaxy Cluster Core at z=4

Long, Arianna S. and Cooray, Asantha and Ma, Jingzhe and Casey, Caitlin M. and Wardlow, Julie L. and Nayyeri, Hooshang and Ivison, R. J. and Farrah, Duncan and Dannerbauer, Helmut (2020) Emergence of an Ultra-Red Ultra-Massive Galaxy Cluster Core at z=4. The Astrophysical Journal, 898 (2). ISSN 0004-637X

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Recent simulations and observations of massive galaxy cluster evolution predict that the majority of stellar mass buildup happens within cluster members by z = 2, before cluster virialization. Protoclusters rich with dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at z > 3 are the favored candidate progenitors for these massive galaxy clusters at z ~ 0. We present here the first study analyzing stellar emission along with cold dust and gas continuum emission in a spectroscopically confirmed z = 4.002 protocluster core rich with DSFGs, the Distant Red Core (DRC). We combine new Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer data with existing Gemini, Herschel, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations to derive individual galaxy-level properties and compare them to coeval field and other protocluster galaxies. All of the protocluster members are massive (>1010 M ⊙), but not significantly more so than their coeval field counterparts. Within uncertainty, all are nearly indistinguishable from galaxies on the star-forming versus stellar mass main-sequence relationship and the star formation efficiency plane. Assuming no future major influx of fresh gas, we estimate that these gaseous DSFGs will deplete their gas reservoirs in ~300 Myr, becoming the massive quiescent ellipticals dominating cluster cores by z ~ 3. Using various methodologies, we derive a total z = 4 halo mass of ~1014 M ⊙ and estimate that the DRC will evolve to become an ultramassive cluster core of mass 1015 M ⊙ by z = 0.

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Journal Article
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The Astrophysical Journal
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This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication/published in Nanotechnology. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab9d1f
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19 Aug 2020 11:10
Last Modified:
18 Sep 2023 01:48