Design and performance of a 35-ton liquid argon time projection chamber as a prototype for future very large detectors

Adams, D. L. and Baird, M. and Barr, G. and Barros, N. and Blake, A. and Blaufuss, E. and Brailsford, D. and Buchanan, N. and Carls, B. and Convery, M. and Geronimo, G. De and Dealtry, T. and Dharmapalan, R. and Djurcic, Z. and Fowler, J. and Glavin, S. and Gomes, R. A. and Greenler, L. and Hahn, A. and Hartnell, J. and Herbst, R. and Higuera, A. and Himmel, A. and Insler, J. and Jacobsen, J. and Junk, T. and Klein, J. and Kudryavtsev, V. A. and Kutter, T. and McConkey, N. and Moura, C. A. and Mufson, S. and Nambiar, N. and Nowak, J. and Paulos, R. and Qian, X. and Rodrigues, O. and Sands, W. and Santucci, G. and Sharma, R. and Sinev, G. and Spooner, N. J. C. and Stancu, I. and Stefan, D. and Stock, J. and Strauss, T. and Sulej, R. and Thiesse, M. and Tsai, Y. T. and Berg, R. Van (2020) Design and performance of a 35-ton liquid argon time projection chamber as a prototype for future very large detectors. Journal of Instrumentation, 15. ISSN 1748-0221

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Abstract

Liquid argon time projection chamber technology is an attractive choice for large neutrino detectors, as it provides a high-resolution active target and it is expected to be scalable to very large masses. Consequently, it has been chosen as the technology for the first module of the DUNE far detector. However, the fiducial mass required for "far detectors" of the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments far exceeds what has been demonstrated so far. Scaling to this larger mass, as well as the requirement for underground construction places a number of additional constraints on the design. A prototype 35-ton cryostat was built at Fermi National Acccelerator Laboratory to test the functionality of the components foreseen to be used in a very large far detector. The Phase I run, completed in early 2014, demonstrated that liquid argon could be maintained at sufficient purity in a membrane cryostat. A time projection chamber was installed for the Phase II run, which collected data in February and March of 2016. The Phase II run was a test of the modular anode plane assemblies with wrapped wires, cold readout electronics, and integrated photon detection systems. While the details of the design do not match exactly those chosen for the DUNE far detector, the 35-ton TPC prototype is a demonstration of the functionality of the basic components. Measurements are performed using the Phase II data to extract signal and noise characteristics and to align the detector components. A measurement of the electron lifetime is presented, and a novel technique for measuring a track's position based on pulse properties is described.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Journal of Instrumentation
Additional Information:
28 pages, 13 figures, to be submitted to JINST
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2600/2610
Subjects:
ID Code:
142013
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
03 Mar 2020 09:30
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
29 Sep 2020 05:21