Selected organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of major Indian Cities:Levels, regional versus local variations, and sources

Chakraborty, Paromita and Zhang, Gan and Li, Jun and Xu, Yue and Liu, Xiang and Tanabe, Shinsuke and Jones, Kevin C. (2010) Selected organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of major Indian Cities:Levels, regional versus local variations, and sources. Environmental Science and Technology, 44 (21). pp. 8038-8043. ISSN 0013-936X

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India has extensive production and usage of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) for agriculture and vector control. Despite this, few data are available on the levels and distribution of OCPs in the urban atmosphere of India. Passive and active air sampling was therefore conducted between Dec 2006 and March 2007 in 7 metropolitan cities: New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Goa, and Agra. Concentrations (pg·m-3) were as follows: HCHs 890-17000 (mean: 5400 ± 4110); DDTs 250-6110 (1470 ± 1010); chlordanes 290-5260 (1530 ± 790); endosulfans 240-4650 (1040 ± 610); and hexachlorobenzene 120-2890 (790 ± 510). HCHs observed in India appear to be the highest reported across the globe. Chlordanes and endosulfans are lower than levels reported from southern China. Passive sampling enabled within-and between-city variations to be assessed. As expected, paired-sample t-test analysis revealed higher regional than local variation. Comparisons with the limited data available from studies conducted in 1989 suggest general declines of HCHs and DDTs for most regions. γ-HCH dominated the HCH signal, reflecting widespread use of Lindane in India, although the isomeric composition in Kolkata suggests potential technical HCH use. High o,p′-/p,p′-DDT ratios in northern India indicate recent DDT usage. High HCB levels in the industrial areas of New Delhi and Kolkata indicate ongoing sources. Correlation between trans-and cischlordane implies ongoing usage. Endosulfan sulfate generally dominated the endosulfan signal, but high values of α/β-endosulfan at Chennai, Mumbai and Goa suggest ongoing usage. Backward trajectories were computed using the NOAA HYSPLIT model to trace the air mass history. Result shows local/regional sources of OCPs within India.

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Journal Article
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Environmental Science and Technology
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14 Oct 2019 13:38
Last Modified:
16 Sep 2023 02:03