Selective gas phase hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene over Pd catalysts:Role of the support

Cardenas-Lizana, Fernando and Hao, Yufen and Crespo-Quesada, Micaela and Yuranov, Igor and Wang, Xiaodong and Keane, Mark A. and Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov (2013) Selective gas phase hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene over Pd catalysts:Role of the support. ACS Catalysis, 3 (6). pp. 1386-1396. ISSN 2155-5435

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The gas phase (1 atm, 453 K) hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) over a series of laboratory-synthesized and commercial Pd (1–10% wt) supported on activated carbon (AC) and non-reducible (SiO2 and Al2O3) and reducible (ZnO) oxides has been examined. Reaction over these catalysts generated the target p-chloroaniline (p-CAN) (via selective hydrogenation) and nitrobenzene (NB)/aniline (AN) as a result of a combined hydrodechlorination/hydrogenation. A range of Pd nanoparticles with mean sizes 2.4–12.6 nm (from HRTEM and H2/CO chemisorption) were generated. Both the p-CNB transformation rate and H2 chemisorption increased with decreasing Pd size. Residual Mo (from the stabilizer used in the synthesis of Pd colloids) suppressed activity, but this was circumvented by the use of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP). Pd/AC generated p-CAN and AN as principal products, Pd on SiO2 and Al2O3 exhibited hydrodechlorination character generating AN and NB, and Pd/ZnO promoted the sole formation of p-CAN at all levels of conversion. Reaction selectivity is linked to Pd electron density with the formation of Pdδ+ on AC and the occurrence of Pdδ− on SiO2 and Al2O3. Reaction exclusivity to p-CAN over Pd/ZnO is attributed to the formation of PdZn alloy (demonstrated by XPS), which selectively activates the −NO2 group. This is the first report that demonstrates 100% selectivity for p-CNB → p-CAN over supported Pd.

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ACS Catalysis
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23 Sep 2019 11:35
Last Modified:
16 Sep 2023 02:01