Combustion- and friction-derived magnetic air pollution nanoparticles in human hearts

Calderón-Garcidueñas, L. and González-Maciel, A. and Mukherjee, P.S. and Reynoso-Robles, R. and Pérez-Guillé, B. and Gayosso-Chávez, C. and Torres-Jardón, R. and Cross, J.V. and Ahmed, I.A.M. and Karloukovski, V.V. and Maher, B.A. (2019) Combustion- and friction-derived magnetic air pollution nanoparticles in human hearts. Environmental Research, 176. ISSN 0013-9351

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Abstract

Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iron-rich, strongly magnetic, combustion- and friction-derived nanoparticles (CFDNPs) are abundant in particulate air pollution. Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) young residents have abundant brain CFDNPs associated with AD pathology. We aimed to identify if magnetic CFDNPs are present in urbanites' hearts and associated with cell damage. We used magnetic analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify heart CFDNPs and measured oxidative stress (cellular prion protein, PrPC), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (glucose regulated protein, GRP78) in 72 subjects age 23.8 ± 9.4y: 63 MMC residents, with Alzheimer Continuum vs 9 controls. Magnetite/maghemite nanoparticles displaying the typical rounded crystal morphologies and fused surface textures of CFDNPs were more abundant in MMC residents' hearts. NPs, ∼2–10 × more abundant in exposed vs controls, were present inside mitochondria in ventricular cardiomyocytes, in ER, at mitochondria-ER contact sites (MERCs), intercalated disks, endothelial and mast cells. Erythrocytes were identified transferring ‘hitchhiking’ NPs to activated endothelium. Magnetic CFDNP concentrations and particle numbers ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 μg/g and ∼2 to 22 × 109/g, respectively. Co-occurring with cardiomyocyte NPs were abnormal mitochondria and MERCs, dilated ER, and lipofuscin. MMC residents had strong left ventricular PrPC and bi-ventricular GRP78 up-regulation. The health impact of up to ∼22 billion magnetic NPs/g of ventricular tissue are likely reflecting the combination of surface charge, ferrimagnetism, and redox activity, and includes their potential for disruption of the heart's electrical impulse pathways, hyperthermia and alignment and/or rotation in response to magnetic fields. Exposure to solid NPs appears to be directly associated with early and significant cardiac damage. Identification of strongly magnetic CFDNPs in the hearts of children and young adults provides an important novel layer of information for understanding CVD pathogenesis emphasizing the urgent need for prioritization of particulate air pollution control.

Item Type: Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title: Environmental Research
Additional Information: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Environmental Research. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Environmental Research, 176, 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108567
Uncontrolled Keywords: /dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2300
Subjects:
Departments: Faculty of Science and Technology > Lancaster Environment Centre
ID Code: 136037
Deposited By: ep_importer_pure
Deposited On: 09 Aug 2019 14:05
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 19 Feb 2020 05:34
URI: https://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/136037

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