Air Quality Inside and Outside Vehicles:Complex Patterns of Exposure in Space and Time

Booker, Douglas and Molden, Nick (2019) Air Quality Inside and Outside Vehicles:Complex Patterns of Exposure in Space and Time. In: 29th CRC Real World Emissions Workshop, 2019-03-102019-03-13, Long Beach.

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Abstract

The average person now spends more than 90% of their time indoors, with around one hour of this spent inside vehicles. This is referred to as Vehicle Interior Air Quality (VIAQ). This exposure is important to understand given the immediate proximity to significant pollutant sources (other vehicles), plus in urban areas, high outdoor concentrations. 1) Two key questions must be rexplored when examining VIAQ; 1) how much outdoor air pollution is penetrating into the cabin? 2) what are the in-vehicle emissions? 1)To address this knowledge gap, two NAQTS V2000 Integrated Air Quality Monitors were used to simultaneously monitor inside/outside an array of vehicles for a holistic understanding of VIAQ (Particle Number Concentrations (> 23nm), Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Volatile Organic Compounds) along with environmental and road comfort parameters (Noise, Temperature, Pressure, Relative Humidity, Speed, Location, and Vibration). The data was gathered on “real-world driving” routes encompassing urban, rural, and highway sections, under a wide range of HVAC operating modes. For the VIAQ measurements, the NAQTS V2000 was conveniently housed in a mannequin to reflect human exposure. For the AAP measurements, the NAQTS V2000 was mounted onto a suction cup, that could be fitted onto a wide range of vehicles easily. The objective of this project was to characterize the kinetics of air pollution inside/outside vehicles to understand the role of location, passenger habits, and vehicle technology (filtration etc.) on VIAQ 2)There are also significant sources of pollution from inside the vehicle. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), responsible for the “new car smell”, can be emitted from an array of interior parts and components: the dashboard, interior panels, flooring materials, and many others. Within the confined space of a vehicle, VOCs emitted from these components may reach levels that are potentially harmful to human occupants, causing symptoms such as nausea, allergies, fatigue, stinging eyes, and headaches. Beyond affecting drivers’ and passengers’ well-being and comfort, such symptoms may have also consequences on safe driving. NAQTS and Emissions Analytics have been developing the technology and methodology to deepen our knowledge of VIAQ. The information from different vehicles was indexed to create a benchmark for vehicles on VIAQ. This information will improve consumer information on vehicle’s performance through a new metric, In-cabin comfort. It will also inform the general public on behavioural changes that can mitigate exposure, as well as inform manufacturers on how to best develop models/hardware to automate HVAC systems to reduce occupants air pollution exposure, as well as to use the best materials to mitigate VOCs emissions. This presentation will focus on: •The regulatory context of VIAQ •The technology to measure inside vehicles: challenges and opportunities •Insights from the Emissions Analytics database on VIAQ •How to effectively present this information to the general public

Item Type:
Contribution to Conference (Poster)
Journal or Publication Title:
29th CRC Real World Emissions Workshop
ID Code:
135647
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
31 Jul 2019 13:00
Refereed?:
No
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
19 Sep 2020 00:49