One-Step Covalent Immobilization of β-Cyclodextrin on sp2 Carbon Surfaces for Selective Trace Amount Probing of Guests

Li, Z. and Van Guyse, J.F.R. and R. de la Rosa, V. and Van Gorp, H. and Walke, P. and González, M.C.R. and Uji-i, H. and Hoogenboom, R. and De Feyter, S. and Mertens, S.F.L. (2019) One-Step Covalent Immobilization of β-Cyclodextrin on sp2 Carbon Surfaces for Selective Trace Amount Probing of Guests. Advanced Functional Materials, 29 (36). ISSN 1616-301X

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Abstract

The modification of solid surfaces with supramolecular hosts is a powerful method to tailor interfacial properties and confer chemical selectivity, but often involves multistep protocols that hinder facile upscaling. Here, the one-step covalent modification of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) with a β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivative, which efficiently forms inclusion complexes with hydrophobic guests of suitable size, is demonstrated. The grafted β-CD-HOPG surface is investigated toward electrochemical detection of ferrocene and dopamine. The enrichment of the analytes at the electrode surface, through inclusion in β-CD, leads to an enhanced electrochemical response and an improved detection limit. Furthermore, the modified β-CD-HOPG electrode discriminates analytes that form host–guest complexes with β-CD against a 100-fold higher background of electroactive substances that do not. Atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy confirm the covalent nature of the modification and reveal high stability toward solvent rinsing, ultrasonication, and temperatures up to 140 °C. The one-step covalent modification therefore holds substantial promise for the routine production of inexpensive, yet robust and highly performant electrochemical sensors. Beyond electrochemical sensor development, our strategy is valuable to prepare materials where accurate spatial positioning of functional units and efficient current collection are crucial, e.g. in photoelectrodes or electrocatalysts.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Advanced Functional Materials
Subjects:
ID Code:
135534
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
28 Jan 2020 16:15
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
16 Sep 2020 05:42