Auxetic oesophageal stents:Structure and mechanical properties

Ali, M.N. and Busfield, J.J.C. and Rehman, I.U. (2014) Auxetic oesophageal stents:Structure and mechanical properties. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 25 (2). pp. 527-553. ISSN 0957-4530

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Oesophageal cancer is the ninth leading cause of malignant cancer death and its prognosis remains poor, ranking as the sixth most frequent cause of death in the world. This research work aims to adopt an Auxetic (rotating-squares) geometry device, that had previously been examined theoretically and analysed by Grima and Evans (J Mater Sci Lett 19(17):1563-1565, 2000), to produce a novel Auxetic oesophageal stent and stent-grafts relevant to the palliative treatment of oesophageal cancer and also for the prevention of dysphagia. This paper discusses the manufacture of a small diameter Auxetic oesophageal stent and stent-graft. The oral deployment of such an Auxetic stent would be simplest if a commercial balloon dilatational catheter was used as this obviates the need for an expensive dedicated delivery system. A novel manufacturing route was employed in this research to develop both Auxetic films and Auxetic oesophageal stents, which ranged from conventional subtractive techniques to a new additive manufacturing method. Polyurethane was selected as a material for the fabrication of Auxetic films and Auxetic oesophageal stents because of its good biocompatibility and non-toxicological properties. The Auxetic films were later used for the fabrication of seamed Auxetic oesophageal stents. The flexible polyurethane tubular grafts were also attached to the inner luminal side of the seamless Auxetic oesophageal stents, in order to prevent tumour in-growth. Scanning electron microscopy was used to conduct surface morphology study by using different Auxetic specimens developed from different conventional and new additive manufacturing techniques. Tensile testing of the Auxetic films was performed to characterise their mechanical properties. The stent expansion tests of the Auxetic stents were done to analyse the longitudinal extension and radial expansion of the Auxetic stent at a range of radial pressures applied by the balloon catheter, and to also identify the pressure values where the Auxetic stent fails. Finite element models of both Auxetic film and Auxetic stent were developed, and the results were compared with experimental results with a good agreement. The tensile testing of the Auxetic polyurethane films revealed that the Poisson's ratio of the sample ranged between -0.87 and -0.963 at different uniaxial tensile load values. From the stent expansion test, it was found that the Auxetic oesophageal stent radially expanded from 0.5 to 5.73 mm and longitudinally extended from 0.15 to 1.83 mm at a range of applied pressure increments (0.5-2.7 bar) from the balloon catheter. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
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17 Apr 2019 09:15
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16 Sep 2023 01:55